A BRIEF HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN FORGERY

by Stephen Sorensen

This concatenation is anything but extensive. It was written to give a slight view into the world of forgery. This concatenated narrative of forgery is anything but extensive.

Of special interest to me is the era directly preceding that of the era of standardization, namely the 10th-15th centuries because this is the era to which the vast majority of the alleged ancient texts date. The introduction of the printing press in the mid-15th century accelerated the standardization of literary works and it was during this time that “standard” editions of classical texts were being published. The scholars of the time were aware of the magnitude of forgeries and fakes but many were still taken in by them nonetheless.

“Riddled with the inconsistency of compelling yet conflicting preconceptions … all ‘olden times’ are potentially fraudulent.”
David Lowenthal (1990)[8, p.17]

“If detecting a forgery is not easy in the first place, exposing one that has been honored as an original for hundreds of years is a far greater challenge.”
Lynn Catterson (2005)[14, p.30]

The Chronology

The history of forgery perceivably goes back almost as far as human invention does. The oldest types of forgeries or fakes in the East and the West are said to have been literary forgeries.[8, pp.23, 99] In a similar vein, the practice of art forgery is conceivably just as old as the practice of art itself.[10, p.242]

400’s-700’s

Forgeries in this time period were being produced but allegedly the output was notably small.[34, p.xxviii]

800’s-1000’s

“Creative memory was at its most creative in the ninth century, when churchmen forged unprecedented and monumental runs of entirely false charters.”
Constance Brittain Bouchard (2015)[1, p.63]

In the 900’s, forgers began producing historical forgeries to establish the histories of their religious houses. All across Europe, they were taking more of an interest in history, and were doing their best to mimic older texts.[34, pp.xxviii-xxix] In France, the deeds of Carolingian kings were being forged. In England, archival records were being largely forged.[35, p.522]

The imitation of older scripts had become commonplace in literary institutions all across Europe by around 1050.[35, p.528]

“Not only was there a campaign to recopy documents from before the Viking Age, but these documents were manipulated: interpolated, redrafted, improved.”
Julia Crick (2010)[35, p.531]

960-1127

The Northern Song Dynasty brought with it the first notable peak in Chinese art forgeries.[4, p.266]

In 1990, Anthony Grafton commented on how an estimated 66% of all documents given to the clergy prior to 1100 were fakes.[33, p.24]

1400’s-1500’s

“…medieval people … forged to an extent unsurpassed by any other age relics, legends, charters, chronicles, seals, precious stones, etc.”
Otto Kurz (1973)[3, p.77]

Hardyng

John Hardyng (1378-1465) forged historical documents in order to prove to King Henry V that the Scottish kings had always been subservient to the English crown.[11, p.16]

Alberti

Leon Batista Alberti (1404-1472) executed, according to Arthur Freeman in the words of David Marsh, “the most successful literary forgery of the early Renaissance”.[11, p.9] If David did say these words, I cannot say I agree with him. Assuming that by “successful” he meant one that served its purpose, which in the case of a forgery would be to go undetected indefinitely, I’d imagine given the scope of forgery at this time, and the little attention it’s been given, there are still early Renaissance forgeries waiting to be uncovered, and each of those has been more successful thus far than Alberti’s. Alberti also forged an ancient Roman tragicomedy that was printed about 150 years after its time by a printer who thought it to be an authentic creation from antiquity.[11, pp.9-10]

Annius

Annius of Viterbo (c.1432-1502), a Dominican and at one point the Master of the Vatican,[31, p.68] is possibly the most famous forger of the 15th century. His forgeries, which revised large swaths of history, received support and opposition by some of the greatest scholars of his time. It even gave way to more works that were based upon his original forgery. There is also a known case of him forging an inscription made to appear as though it were from the 700’s.[11, pp.11-12]

Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci (1452-1512), the man who North and South America are named after, forged travel narratives that were published around the turn of the 16th century. At least that’s what Arthur Freeman, compiler of the largest library in the world containing works about literary forgery, believes. Of Vespucci’s letters, Arthur is of the opinion that the literary forgery known by the name of “the Soderini Letter” is what lead the Americas to be named after him in 1507.[11, p.14] Others are of the opinion that the letter contains a fictional account, but that it was not written by Vespucci.[28] Also in the mix are those who believe it is a true account by Vespucci.[29]

Trithemius

Trithemius (1462-1516), a German Benedictine abbot who has since been called the “father of bibliography”, could not resist the temptation of forging a thousand years of history. He published a work in 1515 that was based upon sources which in reality did not exist.[11, p.15] It would be as if I appealed to the authoritative Book of Slack to substantiate my narrative about a millennium’s worth of names, places, and events, knowing full well the whole time that the Book of Slack does not exist.

Guevara

Antonio de Guevara (c.1481-1545) had a similar style to Trithemius. He wrote a false historical narrative and cited a non-existent Florentine manuscript. This forgery was taken to be a classical work and maintained popularity in Europe throughout the 1500’s.[11, p.15]

Erasmus

Erasmus (1466-1536), a Catholic who’s commonly held as one of the brightest northern Renaissance scholars, forged a complete work and attributed it to St. Cyprian, who lived some 1200 years prior to the time of publication.[11, p.12]

Panvinio

Onofrio Panvinio (1530-1568), an Augustinian librarian and historian, was recognized by his contemporaries as the “father of history”, and he too resorted to using forgeries. From what I understand, although not as grand as the narrative produced by Trithemius, Panvinio created literary forgeries to help substantiate his arguments about Church history.

Ligorio

Thinking back on inscriptions, they are important for historical studies and can help us understand more about the past. It is not that simple though, for they too have been forged in massive amounts. Pirro Ligorio (c.1512-1583) has been dubbed the “prince of forgers” due to forging at least nearly 3,000 inscriptions. He was a well respected individual and even took over Michelangelo’s supervisor position at St. Peter’s around 1564. The fake inscriptions aroused suspicious early on but nobody made any serious effort to expose these until the latter half of the 1700’s, about 200 years later.[13, pp.27-28]

Michelangelo

Michelangelo (1475-1564) himself has commonly been accused of forging art and antique statues. One apparent habit of his was borrowing original drawings done by old masters and copying them so well that he could return his copy and keep the originals for himself all while going undetected. As for the cases pertaining to his sculptures, I discussed one of these back in March 2020, which is by far the more popular one. Lynn Catterson pioneered the other case in 2005, and to me, it’s the more fascinating one.[14] I’ll briefly cover both of these.

The first case is known because it’s unanimously agreed upon that the controversy resulted in Michelangelo gaining a substantial amount of fame and employment. This happened in the 1490’s. There are two versions of what happened leading up to that moment. The popular account is that Michelangelo was alone responsible in creating a cupid sculpture, artificially aging it, and then selling it as an antique, hence creating a forgery. His reasoning for doing so is often said to have been financial, a struggling no-name artist trying to get a paycheck. The lesser known account is that it was the person who Michelangelo sold the statue to who was the one that attempted to pawn it off as a product of antiquity. Both scenarios are plausible given the limited information, as there are more examples of both of these things happening beyond this isolated case. This is one of the difficulties in labeling something as a forgery. Sometimes there is no intent to deceive when creating an imitative piece, and the deception only enters the scene when someone other than the creator intervenes. In the case of Michelangelo, the intervener would have knowingly introduced the deception, but in some cases misdating can happen unintentionally.

The second case is specifically about the Laocoon, discovered in 1506, but it also mentions a handful of other allegedly antique statues that were possibly forged around this time too. Lynn noted that along with Michelangelo having the motive and the means to create this, he also had the opportunity. And, in the words of Yola Schmitz (2018), “Opportunity not only makes a thief, but also a forger”.[25, p.168] That quote is good to keep in mind when exploring this field. Lynn covered the case in detail and I suggest you read that as a starting point to learn more than what I’ve shared here.

Otto Kurz mentioned that “The forgers of classical antiquities in the Renaissance period were no narrow specialists”.[3, p.79] He went on to say that out of all the fields in which they forged antiquities, that of forging busts of Roman emperors was the largest. This field of scholarship does appear to me to be, at the least, poorly accessible, scarcely represented, and seriously underdeveloped. And as I often note, the field dealing with art forgery is sizably larger than that dealing with literary forgery.

The Trio

I want to take a moment to focus on the Fasti Capitolini, which was discovered in 1564 and has since held a reputation as one of the fundamental sources for our modern conception of Roman chronology. The reason for its importance is because it contains a list of Roman consuls, who were chairmen of the Roman senate who had control over the Roman army and had the greatest amount of legal power, and also a list of other important figures. Consuls have been one of the main sources used for Roman chronology.

The dating of it is typically restricted to the reign of Augustus in the 1st centuries BCE and CE. There is a notable amount of scholarship trying to make sense of its place in history,[16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24] and while talk of 1st century BCE conspiracy has been discussed at some length, I have never seen the idea that it could be a product of the 16th century proposed. The reason why I’m more suspicious about this find in particular is that it was discovered by none other than both the prince of forgers and the father of history, Pirro Ligorio and Onofrio Panvinio. Additionally, the discovery was supervised by Michelangelo. I think it’d be interesting to look upon it with today’s methods of investigation.

Parker

Matthew Parker (1504-1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury and patron to the production of classical forgeries. He’s also been accused of conjuring a fictional characters and acting as though it was a real person. He had writers, drawers, painters, cutters, limners, and bookbinders all within his budget. He also offered his counterfeiting services to other people.[30] Laurence Nowell (1530-c.1570), an associate of Parker and the best Anglo-Saxon scholar of his day, was a forger too.[11, p.17]

The state of English history at this time was dismal, as was noted by Parker himself. He wanted to establish English history as being distinct from the domineering Catholic history. He accused the Catholics of mutilating and perverting English history, leaving it corrupted, incomplete, altered, and in some places altogether erased.[30]

Ceccarelli

Alfonso Ceccarelli (1532-1583) was a physician and historian who was eventually executed for his forgeries. His craft was forged chronicles, genealogies, and legal documents which he then sold to the various people who requested them.[11, p.13], [26, p.235]

Other

Due to the number of forged coins that had made their way into circulation, many 15th and 16th century books on numismatics were required to include a chapter on forgeries.[3, p.78]

c.1550-1644

The Late Ming Dynasty brought with it the second major spike in Chinese art forgeries.[4, p.266] One of the causes of this second great age of forgery was that the desire to possess antiques was rapidly increasing among collectors.[5, p.76], [8, p.99] In the literary world during this time, Chinese colophons were often being forged.[6, p.50] The situation pertaining to colophons was not much better in the West.[7]

1600’s-1700’s

Higuera

Jerónimo Román de La Higuera (1538-1611) was a Spanish Jesuit who forged a hagiographical work known as the Chronicon,[11, p.21] later known as the False Chronicles. To help with their reputation, he gave them a fake provenance by claiming that he received the chronicles from the Benedictine abbey of Fulda, a popular abbey amongst Renaissance scholars for authentic manuscripts. He incorporated prominent issues of the day into these texts, which in the long-run really helped secure their popularity, as they were notably influential from the then until near the end of the 1800’s.[32, pp.1-2]

Scaliger

Born two years after Higuera was Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609), a man who in his own time was considered the most learned man of Europe and who has since gained a reputation as the father of chronology. He created a fictional list of Olympiads, which are the way in which Greek years are counted and dated. It was presented in such a way that many thought it to be an authentic source and it wasn’t until 1852 that it was officially laid to rest as fictional. Another deceptive work of his was a recreation of an ancient lost text of which he never fully explained the origins, leaving it to his readers to figure out.[11, p.20]

Carrera

Pietro Carrera (1573-1647) was an Italian priest who forged 65 letters of Diodorus Siculus, who was a historian from the first century BCE. He also forged an encomium attributed to the C3rd CE St. Agatha.[11, p.22]

Mentel

Jacques Mentel (1597-1671) attempted to prove his supposed ancestor had invented the printing press before Gutenberg. To do this, he fabricated literary evidence and thereby became a forger. He published this in 1650.[11, p.21]

Vignier

Jerome Vignier (1606-1661) was a French priest who published a work in 1649 that contained ecclesiastical, genealogical, and historical forgeries.[11, p.20] I haven’t read much about this one, but an English translations of the title is “The true origin of the very illustrious houses of Alsace, Lorraine, Austria, Baden, and many others“, so I figure it has to do with fabricating histories for these various houses.

Inghirami

Curzio Inghirami (1614-1655) created a literary forgery revealed through an archeological forgery. He buried numerous fragments forged to appear Etruscan and which relayed the recently fabricated tale of Etruria’s destruction by Roman forces in 60 BCE.

Bertram

Charles Julius Bertram (1723-1765) was called “the cleverest and most successful literary imposter of modern times” for his forged account of Roman Britain, published in 1757. Along with it came a forged mapped that depicted imaginary Roman stations and roads.

1800’s-1900’s

The systematic study of forgery began to be established. Previous to this, historians mainly focused on the topic anecdotally.[2, pp.14-15] The systematic approach began by flourishing in fields now commonly referred to collectively as the historical auxiliary sciences, and this largely took place within German scholarship.

Vrain-Lucas

Denis Vrain-Lucas (1818-1882) was called the prince of forgers.

Simonides

Constantine Simonides (1820-1890) allegedly forged the codex Sinaiticus. He was also known for other forgeries.

c.1890’s-c.1940’s

The Late Qing-early Republican era brought with it the third and final massive wave of art forgeries being produced. Over the course of about 30 years starting in 1920, a single counterfeiter was estimated to have sold some 2,000 counterfeit scrolls.[4, p.266]

Forgery was alive and well in the United States at this time too. In 1913, Richard Gottheil commented on the recent spike in the number of archaeological frauds and called the US a “dumping-ground for forgeries of many kinds”.[9, p.306]

References:

[1] – Bouchard, Constance Brittain. Rewriting Saints and Ancestors: Memory and Forgetting in France, 500-1200. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zw7bp. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[2] – COHEN, PAULA MARANTZ. “The Meanings of Forgery.” Southwest Review, vol. 97, no. 1, 2012, pp. 12–25., www.jstor.org/stable/43821007. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[3] – KURZ, OTTO. “EARLY ART FORGERIES: FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.” Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. 121, no. 5198, 1973, pp. 74–90. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/41371017. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[4] – Laing, Ellen Johnston. “‘Suzhou Pian’ and Other Dubious Paintings in the Received ‘Oeuvre’ of Qiu Ying.” Artibus Asiae, vol. 59, no. 3/4, 2000, pp. 265–295. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/3249881. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[5] – O’Brien, David. “Art in an Expanded Field: Taste and Class in Chinese Visual Culture.” The Journal of American-East Asian Relations, vol. 4, no. 1, 1995, pp. 73–81. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/23612584. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[6] – Ming-Sun Poon. “The Printer’s Colophon in Sung China, 960-1279.” The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, vol. 43, no. 1, 1973, pp. 39–52. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/4306229. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[7] – Bühler, Curt F. “False Information in the Colophons of Incunabula.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 114, no. 5, 1970, pp. 398–406. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/985806. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[8] – Jones, Mark, et al. Fake? The Art of Deception. First Edition, University of California Press, 1990. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_LaUnOztbkP4C/mode/2up. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[9] – Gottheil, Richard. “Two Forged Antiques.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 33, 1913, pp. 306–312. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/592837. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[10] – Thomas P. F. Hoving. “The Game of Duplicity.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 6, 1968, pp. 241–246. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/3258621. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[11] – Freeman, Arthur. Bibliotheca Fictiva. Bernard Quaritch, 2014. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[12] – Ligota, Christopher R. “Annius of Viterbo and Historical Method.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. 50, 1987, pp. 44–56. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/751317. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[13] – Abbott, Frank Frost. “Some Spurious Inscriptions and Their Authors.” Classical Philology, vol. 3, no. 1, 1908, pp. 22–30. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/262031. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[14] – Catterson, Lynn. “Michelangelo’s ‘Laocoön?”.” Artibus Et Historiae, vol. 26, no. 52, 2005, pp. 29–56. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/20067096. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[15] – Bauer, Stefan. The Invention of Papal History: Onofrio Panvinio between Renaissance and Catholic Reform (Oxford-Warburg Studies). Oxford University Press, 2020.

[16] – Taylor, Lily Ross. “The Date of the Capitoline Fasti.” Classical Philology, vol. 41, no. 1, 1946, pp. 1–11. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/267529. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[17] – Taylor, Lily Ross. “Degrassis’ Edition of the Consular and Triumphal Fasti.” Classical Philology, vol. 45, no. 2, 1950, pp. 84–95. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/266435. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[18] – Christopher J. Simpson. “The Original Site of the ‘Fasti Capitolini.’” Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 42, no. 1, 1993, pp. 61–81. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/4436271. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[19] – Bodel, John. “Chronology and Succession 1: ‘Fasti Capitolini’ Fr. XXXIId, the Sicilian ‘Fasti,” and the Suffect Consuls of 36 BC.” Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik, vol. 96, 1993, pp. 259–266. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/20188909. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[20] – Jordan, Bradley. “The ‘Fasti Consulares Capitolini’ and Caesar’s ‘Magistri Equitum Designati.’” Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik, vol. 196, 2015, pp. 231–239., www.jstor.org/stable/43909956. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[21] – Adams, F. W. “Some Observations on the Consular Fasti in the Early Empire.” American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 55, no. 3, 1951, pp. 239–241. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/500973. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[22] – Taylor, Lily Ross, and T. Robert S. Broughton. “The Order of the Consuls’ Names in Official Republican Lists.” Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 17, no. 2, 1968, pp. 166–172. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/4435023. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[23] – Swan, Michael. “The Consular Fasti of 23 B. C. and the Conspiracy of Varro Murena.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. 71, 1967, pp. 235–247. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/310766. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[24] – Russell, Amy. “The Augustan Senate and the Reconfiguration of Time on the Fasti Capitolini.” Augustus and the Destruction of History: The Politics of the Past in Early Imperial Rome, edited by INGO GILDENHARD et al., vol. 41, Cambridge Philological Society, Oxford, 2019, pp. 157–186. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv10kmc9n.13. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[25] – Schmitz, Yola. “Faked Translations: James Macpherson’s Ossianic Poetry.” Faking, Forging, Counterfeiting: Discredited Practices at the Margins of Mimesis, edited by Yola Schmitz et al., Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld, 2018, pp. 167–180. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv1wxr9t.13. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[26] – Siraisi, Nancy G. “History, Antiquarianism, and Medicine: The Case of Girolamo Mercuriale.” Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 64, no. 2, 2003, pp. 231–251. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/3654127. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[27] – Roukema, E. “The Mythical ‘First Voyage’ of the ‘Soderini Letter.’” Imago Mundi, vol. 16, 1962, pp. 70–75. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/1150303. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[28] – Roukema, E. “The Mythical ‘First Voyage’ of the ‘Soderini Letter.’” Imago Mundi, vol. 16, 1962, pp. 70–75. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/1150303. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[29] – Davies, A. “The ‘First’ Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci in 1497-8.” The Geographical Journal, vol. 118, no. 3, 1952, pp. 331–337. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/1790319. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[30] – Robinson, Benedict Scott. “‘Darke Speech’: Matthew Parker and the Reforming of History.” The Sixteenth Century Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, 1998, pp. 1061–1083. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/2543358. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[31] – Farrer, J. A. (1907). Literary Forgeries. Longmans, Green, and Co. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Literary_Forgeries/_QCFAAAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[32] – Olds, Katrina B. “The ‘False Chronicles,” Cardinal Baronio, and Sacred History in Counter-Reformation Spain.” The Catholic Historical Review, vol. 100, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1–26., www.jstor.org/stable/43898529. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[33] – Grafton, Anthony, and Ann Blair. Forgers and Critics, New Edition: Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship. New, Princeton University Press, 2019. Accessed 21 Jun. 2021.

[34] – Roach, Levi. Forgery and Memory at the End of the First Millennium. Princeton University Press, 2021. Accessed 6 Jul. 2021.

[35] – Crick, J. (2010). Insular History? Forgery and the English Past in the Tenth Century. England and the Continent in the Tenth Century, 515–544. doi:10.1484/m.sem-eb.3.4713. Accessed 6 Jul. 2021.

According To Numerous Ancient Accounts, There Was A Time When The Moon Did Not Exist In The Sky

In ancient writings and traditions one can find proof of a time when the moon did not exist. Democretus and Anaxagoras mention that there was a time when no moon could be seen in the night skies. In describing the history of the Greek region of Arcadia, Aristotle writes that the Pelasgians lived in the area since very old times; at a time when the moon did not exist.

forbidden history there was a time when the moon did not exist in the sky

Apollonios from Rhodes mentions something similar; he talks about a time when not all of the celestial objects existed in the sky; before the time of Deucalion’s and Pyrra’s generation (before the cataclysm); when the moon did not exist and the only humans that existed were the Pelasgians living on the mountains of Arcadia (region in Greece). These inhabitants of Arcadia where also known as Proselenes (meaning “those that were before moon” in Greek).

In Plutarch’s work “Morals” we find the following: “There were Arcadians of Evander’s following, the so-called pre-Lunar people.”

Similarly, Ovid wrote: “The Arcadians are said to have possessed their land before the birth of Zeus, and the folk is older than the Moon.”

Stephanus of Byzantium wrote: “Arcadians and females, both exist before the moon”. Hippolytus refers to a legend that “Arcadia brought forth Pelasgus, of greater antiquity than the moon.”

Lukianos in his Astrology says that “the Arcadians affirm in their folly that they are older than the moon”.

Evidence has also been found in other parts of the world. In Bolivia symbols on the wall of the courtyard of Kalasasaya (built in 13,000 BC) provide evidence that the moon came into orbit around the Earth at a specific moment in time thousands of years ago, long before what mainstream historians refer to as recorded history. Moreover the calendar gate in the same site provides evidence that a smaller satellite once rotated around the Earth.

The oral traditions of Colombian Indians of the Bogota highlands in the eastern Corldilleras of Colombia refer to a time before the moon.

“In the earliest times, when the moon was not yet in the heavens,” say the tribesmen of Chibchas (1).

Africa also provides its own evidence. According to Zulu legend, the moon was brought hundreds of generations ago by two brothers of alien form, Wowane and Mpanku.

What does all this mean?

The ancient memory of an Earth inhabited by humans without a moon has passed from generations to generations forming the traditions of numerous civilizations. How did the moon get there?

Reference: 1. A. von Humboldt, Vues des Cordilléres (1816), English transl.: Researches Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of America, (1814), vol. I, p. 87; cf. H. Fischer,In mondener Welt (1930), p. 145

Source: HistoryDisclosure.com

The Earth Without The Moon

The period when the Earth was Moonless is probably the most remote recollection of mankind. Democritus and Anaxagoras taught that there was a time when the Earth was without the Moon.(1) Aristotle wrote that Arcadia in Greece, before being inhabited by the Hellenes, had a population of Pelasgians, and that these aborigines occupied the land already before there was a moon in the sky above the Earth; for this reason they were called Proselenes.(2)

Apollonius of Rhodes mentioned the time “when not all the orbs were yet in the heavens, before the Danai and Deukalion races came into existence, and only the Arcadians lived, of whom it is said that they dwelt on mountains and fed on acorns, before there was a moon.” (3)

Plutarch wrote in The Roman Questions: “There were Arcadians of Evander’s following, the so-called pre-Lunar people.”(4) Similarly wrote Ovid: “The Arcadians are said to have possessed their land before the birth of Jove, and the folk is older than the Moon.” (5) Hippolytus refers to a legend that “Arcadia brought forth Pelasgus, of greater antiquity than the moon.”(6) Lucian in his Astrology says that “the Arcadians affirm in their folly that they are older than the moon.”(7)

Censorinus also alludes to the time in the past when there was no moon in the sky.(8)

Some allusions to the time before there was a Moon may be found also in the Scriptures. In Job 25:5 the grandeur of the Lord who “Makes peace in the heights” is praised and the time is mentioned “before [there was] a moon and it did not shine.” Also in Psalm 72:5 it is said: “Thou wast feared since [the time of] the sun and before [the time of] the moon, a generation of generations.” A “generation of generations” means a very long time. Of course, it is of no use to counter this psalm with the myth of the first chapter of Genesis, a tale brought down from exotic and later sources.

The memory of a world without a moon lives in oral tradition among the Indians. The Indians of the Bogota highlands in the eastern Cordilleras of Colombia relate some of their tribal reminiscences to the time before there was a moon. “In the earliest times, when the moon was not yet in the heavens,” say the tribesmen of Chibchas.(9)

There are currently three theories of the origin of the moon:

1) The Moon originated at the same time as the Earth, being formed substantially from the same material, aggregating and solidifying.

2) The Moon was formed not in the vicinity of the Earth, but in a different part of the solar system, and was later captured by the Earth.

3) The Moon was originally a portion of the terrestrial crust and was torn out, leaving behind the bed of the Pacific.

All three theories claim the presence of the Moon on an orbit around the Earth for billions of years. Mythology may supply each of these views with some support (Genesis I for the first view; the birth of Aphrodite from the sea for the third view; Aphrodite’s origin in the disruption of Uranus, and also the violence of Sin—the Babylonian Moon—seems to support the second view).

Since mankind on both sides of the Atlantic preserved the memory of a time when the Earth was without the Moon, the first hypothesis, namely, of the Moon originating simultaneously with the Earth and in its vicinity, is to be excluded, leaving the other two hypotheses to compete between themselves.

We have seen that the traditions of diverse peoples offer corroborative testimony to the effect that in a very early age, but still in the memory of mankind, no moon accompanied the Earth.(10) Since human beings already peopled the Earth, it is improbable that the Moon sprang from it: there must have existed a solid lithosphere, not a liquid earth. Thus while I do not claim to know the origin of the Moon, I find it more probable that the Moon was captured by the Earth. Such an event would have occurred as a catastrophe.(11) If the Moon’s formation took place away from the Earth,(12) its composition may be quite different.

There is no evidence to suggest whether the Moon was a planet, a satellite of another planet, or a comet at the time of its capture by the Earth. Whatever atmosphere it may have had(13) was pulled away by the Earth, by other contacting bodies, or dissipated in some other way.

Since the time the Moon began to accompany the Earth, it underwent the influence of contacts with comets and planets that passed near the Earth in subsequent ages. The mass of the Moon being less than that of the Earth, the Moon must have suffered greater disturbances in cosmic contacts. During these contacts the Moon was not carried away: this is due to the fact that no body more powerful than the Earth came sufficiently close to the Moon to take it away from the Earth for good; but in the contacts that took place the Moon was removed repeatedly from one orbit to another.

The variations in the position of the Moon can be read in the variations in the length of the month. The length of the month repeatedly changed in subseqent catastrophic events—and for this there exists a large amount of supporting evidence. In these later occurrences the Moon played a passive role, and Zeus in the Iliad advised it (Aphrodite) to stay out of the battle in which Athene and Ares (Venus and Mars) were the main contestants.

References:

  1. Hippolytus, Refutatio Omnium Haeresium V. ii.
  2. Aristotle, fr. 591 (ed. V. Rose [Teubner:Tuebingen, 1886] ). Cf. Pauly’s Realencyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft,article “Mond” ; H. Roscher, Lexicon d. griech. und roemisch. Mythologie, article “Proselenes.”
  3. Argonautica IV.264.
  4. Plutarch, Moralia, transl. by F. C. Babbit, sect. 76.
  5. Fasti, transl. by Sir J. Frazer, II. 290.
  6. Refutatio Omnium Haeresium V. ii.
  7. Lucian, Astrology, transl. by A. M. Harmon (1936), p. 367, par. 26.
  8. Liber de die natali 19; also scholium on Aristophanes’ Clouds, line 398.
  9. A. von Humboldt, Vues des Cordillères (1816), English transl.: Researches Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of America, (1814), vol. I, p. 87; cf. H. Fischer, In mondener Welt (1930), p. 145.
  10. [In addition to the sources cited above, cf. The Nihongi Chronicles of Japan (I.ii, in Transactions and Proceedings of the Japanese Society,vol. I [1896]) which recount how “Heaven and Earth . . . produced the Moon-god.” The Kalevala of the Finns recalls a time “when the Moon was placed in orbit.” (Rune III.35)]
  11. [Cf. the effects of such an event on the Earth’s rotation calculated by H. Gerstenkorn in Zeitschrift fuer Astrophysik, 36 (1955), p. 245; cf. idem, in Mantles of the Earth and the Terrestrial Planets, S. K. Runcorn ed., (New York, 1967); also idem in Icarus 9 (1968), p. 394.]
  12. [Cf. H. Alfven and G. Arrhenius, “Two Alternatives for the History of the Moon,” Science 165 (1969), 11ff.; S. F. Singer and L. W. Banderman, “Where was the Moon Formed?” Science 170 (1970), 438-439: “ . . . The moon was formed independently of the earth and later captured, presumably by a three-body interaction, and these events were followed by the dissipation of the excess energy through tidal friction in a close encounter.” More recently, a study of lunar paleotides has shown that “the Moon could not have been formed in orbit around the Earth” (A. J. Anderson, “Lunar Paleotides and the Origin of the Earth-Moon System,” The Moon and the Planets, 19 [1978], 409-417). Because of a certain degree of instability in the Sun-Earth-Moon system, “the planetary origin and capture of the Moon by the Earth becomes a strong dynamic possibility.” (V. Szebehely and R. McKenzie, “Stability of the Sun-Earth-Moon System,” The Astronomical Journal 82 (1977), 303ff.].
  13. [Cf. Yu. B. Chernyak, “On Recent Lunar Atmosphere,” Nature, 273 (15 June, 1978), pp. 497ff. The author found “strong theoretical evidence of a considerable atmosphere on the Moon during the greater part of its history.”]

Source: Varchive.org

Scientists: Geological Evidence Shows The Sphinx Could Be 800,000 Years Old

One of the most mysterious and enigmatic monuments on the surface of the planet is without a doubt the Great Sphinx at the Giza plateau in Egypt. It is an ancient construction that has baffled researchers ever since its discovery and until today, no one has been able to accurately date the Sphinx, since there are no written records or mentions in the past about it.

Now, two Ukrainian researchers have proposed a new provocative theory where the two scientists propose that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is around 800,000 years old. A revolutionary theory that is backed up by science.

The study was presented at the International Conference of Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy held in Sofia titled: GEOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM OF DATING THE GREAT EGYPTIAN SPHINX CONSTRUCTION.

The authors of this paper are scientists Manichev Vjacheslav I. (Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and Alexander G. Parkhomenko (Institute of Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).

The starting point of these two experts is the paradigm shift initiated by West and Schoch, a ‘debate’ intended to overcome the orthodox view of Egyptology referring to the possible remote origins of the Egyptian civilization and, on the other, physical evidence of water erosion present at the monuments of the Giza Plateau.

According to Manichev and Parkhomenko:

“The problem of dating the Great Egyptian Sphinx construction is still valid, despite of the long-term history of its research. Geological approach in connection to other scientific-natural methods permits to answer the question about the relative age of the Sphinx. The conducted visual investigation of the Sphinx allowed the conclusion about the important role of water from large water bodies which partially flooded the monument with formation of wave-cut hollows on its vertical walls.”

“The morphology of these formations has an analogy with similar such hollows formed by the sea in the coastal zones. Genetic resemblance of the compared erosion forms and the geological structure and petrographic composition of sedimentary rock complexes lead to a conclusion that the decisive factor of destruction of the historic monument is the wave energy rather than sand abrasion in Eolian process.

“Voluminous geological literature confirms the fact of existence of long-living fresh-water lakes in various periods of the Quaternary from the Lower Pleistocene to the Holocene. These lakes were distributed in the territories adjacent to the Nile. The absolute mark of the upper large erosion hollow of the Sphinx corresponds to the level of water surface which took place in the Early Pleistocene. The Great Egyptian Sphinx had already stood on the Giza Plateau by that geological (historical) time.”

A strong argument was made by Ukrainian scientists in regards of the Sphinx, arguments based upon geological studies which support Schoch’s view regarding the Sphinx and its age.

Manichev and Parkhomenko focus on the deteriorated aspect of the body of the Sphinx, leaving aside the erosive features where the Sphinx is located, which had been studied previously by Schoch. Ukrainian scholars focused on the undulating terrain of the Sphinx which displays the mysterious pattern.

Mainstream scientists offer explanations for this sharp feature and state that it is based on the abrasive effect of the wind and sand, the undulations were formed because the harder layers of rock are better at withstanding the erosions while the softer layers would have been more affected, forming voids.

However, as noted Manichev and Parkhomenko, this argument does not explain why the front of the head of the Sphinx lacks such features.

In regards to the argument made by Schoch about the heavy rain period which occurred around 13,000 BC, the Ukrainian scientists recognized Schoch hypothesis partially suggesting that the erosive features of the Sphinx go further back than 13.000 BC.

Manichev and Parkhomenko argue is that the mountainous and coastal areas of the Caucasus and Crimea, which they know well, have a type of wind erosion that differs morphologically to the erosive features noted on the Sphinx.

Essentially, they argue that such wind erosion has a very soft effect, regardless of the geological composition of the rocks.the western wall of the sphinx enclosure, showing erosion consistently along its length

The western wall of the Sphinx enclosure, showing erosion consistently along its length. Courtesy and copyright of Colin Reader.

“In our geological field expeditions in different mountains and littoral zones of the Crimea and Caucasus we could often observe the forms of Eolian weathering which morphology differs considerably from the weathering taking place on the GES. Most natural forms of weathering are of smoothed character, independent of lithological composition of the rocks.”

They continue further and explain:

“Our personal experience in scientific investigation of geology of the sea coasts gives reasons to draw an analogy with the GES and to suggest another mechanism of its destruction. Specialists-geologists, who work in the field of sea-coast geomorphology, know such forms of relief as wave-cut hollows (Morskaya Geomorfologiya, 1980). They can be one- and multi-storey. They are arranged horizontally to the sea water surface, if the coast makes a vertical wall (cliff).

“Especially deep wave-cut hollows are formed in precipitous cliffs built by the strata of carbonaceous rocks. Such forms of the coast relief are well-known and studied in detail on the Black-Sea coast of the Caucasus and Crimea (Popov, 1953; Zenkovich, 1960). General model of formation of the wave-cut hollows in the rocks of the Caucasian flysch is given by Popov (1953, 162; Fig. 3). In dynamics of the process of wave-cut hollows formation one can notice such a characteristic feature that the wave energy is directed to the rock stratum at the level of water surface. Besides, both saline and fresh water can dissolve the rocks.”

Manichev and Parkhomenko propose a new natural mechanism that may explain the undulations and mysterious features of the Sphinx. This mechanism is the impact of waves on the rocks of the coast.

Basically, this could produce, in a period of thousands of years the formation of one or more layers of ripples, a fact that is clearly visible, for example, on the shores of the Black Sea. This process, which acts horizontally (that is, when the waves hit the rock up to the surface), will produce a wear or dissolution of the rock.

The fact is that the observation of these cavities in the Great Sphinx made the Ukranian scientists think that this great monument could have been affected by above said process in the context of immersion in large bodies of water, not the regular flooding of the Nile.

Manichev and Parkhomenko suggest that the geological composition of the body of the Sphinx is a sequence of layers composed of limestone with small interlayers of clays.

Manichev and Parkhomenko explain that these rocks possess different degree of resistance to the water effect and say that if the hollows formation were due to sand abrasion only, the hollows had to correspond to the strata of a certain lithological composition.

They suggest that the Great Sphinx hollows are formed in fact within several strata, or occupy some part of the stratum of homogeneous composition.the back of the great sphinx of egypt

the back of the great sphinx of egypt

Manichev and Parkhomenko firmly believe that the Sphinx had to be submerged for a long time under water and, to support this hypothesis, they point towards existing literature of geological studies of the Giza Plateau.

According to these studies at the end of the Pliocene geologic period (between 5.2 and 1.6 million years ago), sea water entered the Nile valley and gradually creating flooding in the area. This led to formation of lacustrine deposits which are at the mark of 180 m above the present level of the Mediterranean Sea.

According to Manichev and Parkhomenko, it is the sea level during the Calabrian phase which is the closest to the present mark with the highest GES hollow at its level. High level of sea water also caused the Nile overflowing and created long-living water-bodies. As to time it corresponds to 800000 years.

What we have here is evidence which contradicts the conventional theory of deterioration caused by Sand and Water, a theory already criticized by West and Schoch, who recalled that during many centuries, the body of the Sphinx was buried by the sands of the desert, so Wind and Sand erosion would not have done any damage to the enigmatic Sphinx.

However, where Schoch clearly saw the action of streams of water caused by continuous rains, Ukrainian geologists see the effect of erosion caused by the direct contact of the waters of the lakes formed in the Pleistocene on the body Sphinx. This means that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is one of the oldest monuments on the surface of the Earth, pushing back drastically the origin of mankind and civilization.

Some might say that the theory proposed by Manichev and Parkhomenko is very extreme because it places the Great Sphinx in an era where there were no humans, according to currently accepted evolutionary patterns.

Furthermore, as it has been demonstrated, the two megalithic temples, located adjacent to the Great Sphinx were built by the same stone which means that the new dating of the Sphinx drags these monuments with the Sphinx back 800,000 years.

In other words, this means that ancient civilizations inhabited our planet much longer than mainstream scientists are willing to accept.

Source: Ancient-Code.com / Reference: Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy (Eds. R. I. Kostov, B. Gaydarska, M. Gurova). 2008. Proceedings of the International Conference, 29-30 October 2008 Sofia, Publishing House “St. Ivan Rilski”, Sofia, 308-311.

The Forbidden Land Of Agartha, And The Mythical Inner Earth

According to Giannini and Palmer, Vice Admiral Byrd announced on February of 1947, just before venturing into a 2,750 km journey across the North Pole, “I’d like to see the land beyond the Pole. That area beyond the Pole is the center of the Great Enigma.”

land of agartha

According to some, it is believed that during Vice Admiral Byrd’s flight over the North Pole that took place in 1947, he said via radio that beneath was not snow but huge areas of land with mountains, forests and vegetation, huge lakes and rivers with animals that resembled mammoths.

Before his death, had said there existed a land beyond the Pole that was “an enchanted continent in the sky, a permanent mystery of Earth.” That land, according to other theories, was the legendary Rainbow City, home to a fabulous lost civilization.

The possibility that the earth is hollow, and that it can be accessed through the North and South poles, and that secret civilizations flourish within it, has spurred the imagination of people through centuries. Evidence of this we find in the history of countless ancient civilizations.

The Babylonian hero Gilgamesh visited his ancestor Utnapishtim in the bowels of the earth; in Greek mythology, Orpheus tries to rescue Eurydice from the underground hell; it was said that the Pharaohs of Egypt communicated with the underworld, which could be accessed via secret tunnels hidden in the pyramids; and Buddhists believed (and still believe) that millions of people live in Agharta, an underground paradise ruled by the king of the world.

So just when you think that these theories could be nothing more than excessive imaginations, you actually come across evidence in ancient history pointing towards the possibility of a world inside Earth.

The idea that the Forbidden Kingdom of “Agartha” actually exists was not only said to have been supported by Admiral Byrd but by other explorers around the world. A Map made by cartographer Heinrich C. Berann is believed to show an entrance to the inner Earth, the Kingdom of Agartha.

In that map, the Antarctic continent can be observed without its thick layer of ice. But the most intriguing detail are the presence of underwater passages spanning across the entire continent and seem to converge at the exact location which is identified as the opening towards the Hollow Earth or Inner Earth.

Leonard Euler, a mathematical genius of the eighteenth century, concluded that the Earth was hollow, containing a central sun and was inhabited; and Dr. Edmund Halley, discoverer of Comet Halley and Royal Astronomer of England also believed that the Earth was hollow on the inside with three “Floors”.

Some also speak about Operation Highjump and Admiral Byrd’s journeys where extremely advanced airships were seen flying around and exploring new territories. Not long ago, we discovered a map of the third Reich in which there are several secret passages depicted which were used by German U-Boats to access mysterious underground regions, as well as a complete map of both hemispheres and the mysterious kingdom of Agartha.

A letter, supposedly written by Karl Unger, one of the crew members of a German Uboat states that they had reached the interior of the Earth, and that they did not consider returning. All of these stories seem to be backed up by numerous discoveries and recently, scientists discovered a large ocean of water inside the mantle of Earth, and they point out that it is a large water “tank” that could fill the oceans on Earth three times.

Must-read: Nazi Maps and Documents to Agartha Confirm the Hollow Earth Accounts.

This incredible discovery suggests that the surface water of the planet came from within Earth, as part of a “complete water cycle on the planet” instead of the dominant theory proposed that water arrived to Earth by icy comets that passed by the planet millions of years ago.

The Nazis were also extremely interested in the Inner Earth and myths associated with it. It is believed that Antarctica is the entrance to the lost Aryan homeland of Thule. Even though Antarctica has been linked to the lost continent of Atlantis, the linkage to Thule is less apparent.

Thule (also known as Thula, Thyle, Thila, Tila, Tyle, or Tylen) was first mentioned by Greek explorer Pytheas after his travels between 330 BC and 320 BC. But in 150 AD, Greek writer Antonius Diogenes wrote The Wonders Beyond Thule. In the distant past, Thule was believed to have been a distant place located beyond the “borders of the known world.”

Interestingly in 2001 the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the Support Office for Aero-geophysical Research discovered the existence of a magnetic anomaly believed to be on the eastside shore of Lake Vostok in Antarctica, the anomaly is believed to be consistent with a man-made construction.

Reference: Ancient-Code.com

These 10 Facts About The Paracas Skulls Hint Of Ancient Aliens

Are the Paracas skulls the missing link in the origin of mankind? Do they belong to a species that did not originate on Earth? Or are they just another example of cranial deformation?

The enigmatic Paracas skulls are surely one of the most enigmatic discoveries ever made.

Discovered deep in the desert peninsula of Paracas, on the southern coast o Peru, in the barren landscape Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello came across a complex and sophisticated graveyard in 1928. What he found buried there could change everything we know about the history of mankind.

Even though skeptics remain unconfident about the Paracas skulls, many people believe not only could they indicate a missing link in humans origins, but an entirely new species that did not originate on Earth.

It’s up to science to decide who is right.

Here we have 10 interesting facts about the enigmatic Paracas Skulls, a set of controversial human remains that would forever change how we look at our ancestor and our origins:

The bodies in the tombs had some of the largest elongated skulls ever discovered on the planet.
The Peruvian archeologist discovered over 300 mysterious skulls which are believed to be at least around 3000 years old.


There are certain South American tribes that used to ‘bind infant’s skulls’ in order to change their shape, resulting in a drastically elongated cranial shape that resembled anything but ordinary humans.


By applying constant pressure over a long period of time with the use of pieces of wood, the ancient tribes would achieve a cranial deformation which can also be found in ancient cultures from Africa.

While this type of cranial deformation changed the shape of the skull, it did not alter the size, weight or cranial volume, all of which are characteristic traits of regular human skulls.


The cranium of the Paracas skulls is are least 25 % larger and up to 60% heavier than the skulls of regular human beings.


Not only are they different in weight, the Paracas skulls are also structurally different and only have one parietal plate while ordinary humans have two.
Five samples of the Paracas skulls were sent to undergo genetic testing.

The samples which consisted of hair, skin teeth and some fragments of cranial bones gave incredible details that have fueled the mystery surrounding these anomalous skulls.

The genetic laboratory to where the samples were sent was not informed of the origin of the skulls in order to avoid ‘influenced results’. The mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited from the mother, showed mutations that were unknown to any man, primate or animal found on planet Earth.


The mutations present in the samples of the Paracas skulls suggest that researchers were dealing with a completely new ‘human-like being’, very different from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals or Denisovans.


According to Brien Foerster, “It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far.”


A geneticist who participated in the study said: “the individuals from the Paracas skulls were so biologically different that it would have been impossible for humans and them to ‘interbreed’.

“I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree.”
Source: Ancient-Code.com

Keeping Scientist Stephen Hawking Alive (Again)

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Caption: Charles Seife describes the cultural and the broad scientific context of Stephen Hawking’s work, and its reception. The theoretical physicist is pictured here in 2010.

When the latest version of the propped-up “Weekend-at-Bernie’s” stiff known as St. Stephen Hawking “died” more than three years ago, Sugar the Crazed Conspiracy Cat (still alive at that time) and I — believing we’d heard the last of the vegetative Atheist and his handler’s magical talking machine — high-fived / high-pawed each other in righteous celebration. But much like St. Albert Einstein, (((they))) simply won’t let the legend of the all-knowing “Big Bang” bullshit-artist die, hence the post-mortem-published “final papers” of Hawking, continued articles and recent books about him. Hawking’s hogwash and status as all-knowing oracle is too valuable to (((them))).

Arrogant Englishman Hawking was a Cambridge University “theoretical physicist” and best-selling manufacturer of books (15 titles) whose “brilliant” mind, according to the Slimes: “roamed the cosmos from a wheelchair, pondering the nature of gravity and the origin of the universe.” His handlers sure did get paid big-time for ghost-writing and pay-to-attend lecturing for this physical dummy who, in spite of his alleged mathematical prowess, was, during his cognitive years, also a mental dummy — a “savant.”

“The Editorial Board” of The Anti-New York Times had always believed that the real Hawking died at least 40 years ago and was then replaced by a dummy version who supposedly spoke through a computer. As a graduate student in 1963, he was diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, (ALS) a rapidly degenerative neuromuscular disease often referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease — after the famous baseball player. Hawking was given only a few years to live at the time. Yet a half-century and many millions of dollars in book royalties later, at a moment in time when the Hawking impostor “conspiracy theory”  was actually beginning to get a bit of “mainstream media” attention (here), he finally “died” in 2018? Wethinks the illusion-makers thought it was time to kill off the character after a highly successful run — and then focus on sustaining his post-mortem legend for his deluded fanboys.

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THE WORLD GONE MAD!
Queens, Presidents, Popes and others have all paid homage to a vegetative idiot who had neither discovered nor invented anything.

Putting aside the indications of a body-double fraud — given the hype over his demise, one would think that Hawking invented something revolutionary, or least made an astonishing discovery answering the riddles of the Universe. Actually, the obsessively outspoken Atheist Hawking’s only “accomplishment” was in concocting math equations (in lieu of actual experimentation and observation) to “prove” the “Big Bang” and “Black Holes.” This line, from a previous Slimes article, inadvertently reveals the problem with the type of “theoretical science” practiced by St. Hawking and his idiotic ilk:
 
In a long and daunting calculation, Dr. Hawking discovered to his befuddlement that black holes — those mythological avatars of cosmic doom — were not really black at all. In fact, he found, they would eventually fizzle, leaking radiation and particles, and finally explode and disappear over the eons.” (bold emphasis added)
 
Nikola Tesla — the greatest scientific genius of the 20th Century — warned us about crackpots such as St. Albert Einstein, St. Stephen Hawking et al and their exclusive use of “long and daunting” mathematical calculations (and today, computer models) to “prove” imaginary theories shaped from pre-existing, prior assumption bias:

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Tell it, Nicky — tell it! 

Hawking’s hyped up 1988 “masterpiece:” A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes, sold more than 10 million copies and inspired a documentary film by Errol Morris. Cha Ching! Cha Ching Cha Ching! It is interesting to note that there are quite a few secular cosmologists who refute Big Bangism and Black Hole-ism, yet their books, like those of “climate change deniers ,” don’t get the puff-up treatment. Big Bang and Black Hole “deniers,” — no matter how impressive their credentials — are also denied access to the major science publications as well as the pop-science media.

Even more annoying than his Fake Science and his sarcastic, juvenile, God-mocking Atheism, the most tiresome aspect  of Hawking Inc.’s operation was his (his handlers’) frequent “words of wisdom” on this or that issue of the day — empty slogans and platitudes which the Fake News would duly seize upon and hype as the decrees of the Almighty himself. Here is but a tiny sampling of the “brilliance” which “the smartest man in the world” bestowed upon the goofy groupies who hung on Hawking’s every computer-simulated utterance.

  • “A build up of greenhouse gases in Venus’s atmosphere burned off its oceans and turned it into the scorching hot planet seen today, with winds of up to 180mph (300km/h). Venus is an example of runaway greenhouse warming. 
  • The next time you meet a climate change denier, tell them to take a trip to Venus. I will pay the fare.”
  • “The world of science needs Africa’s brilliant talents, and I look forward to meeting prospective young Einsteins from Africa in the near future. As well as an African Einstein, we want to see the African Gates, Brins and Pages of the future.”
  • “Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe. But now science offers a more convincing explanation. …I’m an Atheist. … In my opinion, there is no aspect of reality beyond the reach of the human mind.”
  • “Trump is a demagogue, who seems to appeal to the lowest common denominator.”

Hawking was no “scientist.” He, his handlers, and his Fake News promoters were con men— and Globo-Commies to boot! Good riddance to Hawking Inc. — or so we had previously thought.

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Weekend at Bernie’s” (1989): Two young insurance corporation employees discover their boss, Bernie, dead at his beach house. Upon learning that Bernie had ordered their deaths to cover up his embezzlement (but with instructions to not kill them if he is around) they attempt to convince people that Bernie is still alive.
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Was the speechless Hawking actually brain-damaged, but kept “smart” for money making and propaganda purposes?
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Hawking Inc.
 — Puffed-up best-selling books and endless “speaking” tours — The “smartest man in the world” was just a front for a money-grubbing, multi-million dollar marketing machine.
*

The Protocols of he Learned Elders of Zion: From Protocol 4: Item 3: 
“It is indispensable for us to undermine all faith, to tear out of the mind of the Goyim the very principle of God-head and the spirit, and to put in its place arithmetical calculations and material needs.

Is This Man-Made Underground Complex ONE MILLION Years Old?

While most researchers and scholars around the globe agree that human civilization as we know it only has only existed for some 12,000 years on our planet, there are countless discoveries that point towards a much different past.

There are many findings ranging from temples, structures, and artifacts that are evidence of advanced civilizations that inhabited Earth much sooner than mainstream scholars suggest.

However, many of these incredible findings have been considered as impossible due to the fact that they alter our written history in every possible way.

In recent years, many researchers have started looking at the history of the civilization on Earth with an open mind. One of those researchers is without a doubt, Dr. Alexander Koltypin, a geologist, and director of the Natural Science Research Center at Moscow’s International Independent University of Ecology and Politology.

During his long career, Dr. Koltypin has studied numerous ancient underground structures mainly in the Mediterranean and has identified numerous similarities which have led him to believe that many sites were interconnected. But most incredibly, the weathering of the structures together with their material composition and extreme geological features has led him to believe these megastructures were built by advanced civilizations that inhabited Earth millions of years ago.

Writing on his website Dr. Koltypin states:

“When we examined the constructions… none of us never for a moment had a doubt that they are much older than the ruins of the Canaanite, Philistine, Hebraic, Roman, Byzantine and other cities and settlements that are placed on it and around.” (source)

During his travel to the Mediterranean, Dr. Koltypin was able to accurately record the features present in different ancient sites, something that allowed him to compare, afterward, their incredible similarities and details which tell an incredible alternative history; one that has been firmly rejected by mainstream scholars.one of the many ancient stone structures in antalya, turkey

One of the many ancient stone structures in Antalya, Turkey. (Courtesy of Dr. Alexander Koltypin).

Dr. Koltypin argues that mainstream archeologists who work in the region are used to dating sites by looking at the settlement of rock, debris and the strata of earth located on them or in their vicinity, however, some dates were applied when, in fact, the actual sites were much older prehistoric structures.

While traveling near the Hurvat Burgin ruins in Adullam Grove Nature Reserve, central Israel, Dr. Koltypin recalled a similar feeling when he climbed on the top of the rock city Cavusin in Turkey. Almost a Deja vu feeling, Dr. Koltypin said:

“I was personally convinced once again (in the first time the same feeling came to me after I climbed to the top of the rock city Cavusin in Turkey) that all these rectangular indentations, man-made underground structures and scattered debris of megaliths were one underground-terrestrial megalithic complex which was opened by erosion to a depth of several hundred meters” (source)

In his work (source), Dr. Koltypin argues that not all parts of the giant complex are located underground. There are some parts that have come above ground due to geological shifts that have occurred throughout the history of our planet where Dr. Koltypin includes the incredibly rocky towns of Cappadocia in modern-day Turkey.

“On the basis of this, we can conclude that the underground cities of Cappadocia (including Tatlarin rock city) intended for the accommodation of the ordinary population and the rock city of Cavusin (or its part) was the residence of the kings of the underground. Though almost nothing is known about subterranean, nevertheless we can assume that the people who built the underground cities (if they even were men) were sun-worshipers professed the religion of sun gods (harmony and life by the Divine principles – nature laws). After many thousand or millions of years, this religion had become a basis of the Christian religion.” — Dr. Alexander Koltypin (source)

Dr. Koltypin continues explaining that certain sites in central and Northern Israel and central Turkey were exposed after cutting into the ground some one hundred meters.

“According to my estimates, such depth of erosion … could hardly be formed in less time than 500,000 to 1 million years,” he wrote on his website.

Dr. Koltypin suggests that certain parts of the complex surfaced as a result of mountain formation processes.

According to his estimates, there is evidence to support that the composition of building material found on a site in Antalya Turkey, referred to by Dr. Koltypin as “Jernokleev site,” are up to One Million years old even though mainstream scholars refuse to accept that age proposing instead that the site dates back to the Middle Ages.

Dr. Koltypin further adds that as a result of Earth’s crust moving throughout the centuries, parts of the underground complex were plunged into the sea.

“Practically in all the studied underground constructions of Israel and in the majority of underground constructions of Turkey, sediments of lithified (hard) and calcareous clay deposits are widely developed on their floor,” Dr. Koltypin writes on his website. (source)the ancient cavusin village located in the cappadocia region of turkey

The ancient Cavusin village located in the Cappadocia region of Turkey. (Courtesy of Dr. Alexander Koltypin).

Returning to the subject, Dr. Koltypin suggests that the similarity seen in numerous megalithic ruins is evidence of a profound connection present in ancient sites which were connected as one giant prehistoric complex.

According to Dr. Koltypin, numerous megalithic blocks weighing tens of tons could have been directly attached to underground complexes in the distant past.

“This circumstance gave me a reason to call the underground structures and geographically related ruins of cyclopean walls and buildings as a single underground-terrestrial megalithic complex,” writes Dr. Koltypin in his website.

He further adds that the megalithic construction which is seen in all corners of the world, seem to surpass, by far, the technological capabilities of ancient civilizations who, according to mainstream scholars, built them.

Making reference to the technological capabilities of the ancients, Dr. Koltypin states the stones fit together perfectly in some parts without cement and the ceilings, columns, arches, gates and other elements seem beyond the work of men with chisels.

Adding to the mystery of these incredible sites, Dr. Koltypin notes that structures built on top of, or near sites by the Romans or other civilizations are completely primitive.

Mystery Tracks Left Behind Advanced Technology Millions Of Years Ago

mystery tracks left behind advanced technology millions of years ago

Many researchers believe that there are several pieces of evidence pointing towards the existence of highly advanced ancient civilizations that existed on Earth millions of years ago. (source)

Dr. Alexander Koltypin believes that the mysterious markings that extend along the Phrygian Valley, in central Turkey, were made by an intelligent race between 12 and 14 million years ago.

“We can assume that ancient vehicles with “wheels” were driven into the soft ground, perhaps a wet surface,” said the geologist. “Because of the great weight of these vehicles, they left behind very deep grooves which eventually petrified and turned into evidence.”

Geologists are familiar with such phenomena as they have found petrified footprints of dinosaurs that were preserved in the same way.

Together with three colleagues, Dr. Koltypin, director of the Natural Science Scientific Research Centre at Moscow’s International Independent Ecological-Political University, traveled to the site in Anatolia, Turkey where these markings can be found. Upon returning from his trip, he described the observed as ‘petrified tracking ruts in rocky tuffaceous [made from compacted volcanic ash] deposits’.

Reference: Ancient-Code.com

Forbidden History: Earth’s Timeline According To The Anunnaki

Based on numerous archaeological discoveries: artifacts, records and monuments found in the past by experts, it is believed that the Anunnaki (Sumerian: those who came down from the heavens), an extremely advanced civilization from an elusive planet in our solar system, came to Earth, landing in the Persian Gulf some 432,000 years ago.

forbidden history earth’s timeline according to the anunnaki

In the last couple of decades, numerous controversial discoveries have been made which challenge mainstream researchers and their views on history and human evolution.

Every time we write about the Ancient Anunnaki, we come across much discomfort from various sides of readers. While there are those who firmly believe the existence of the Anunnaki, and their arrival to Earth can explain many accounts which mainstream scholars cannot, there are those who believe that the ancient Anunnaki never existed and that extremely advanced civilizations never existed on Earth.

However, in the last couple of years, a lot of researchers are changing their methodology and starting to think open-mindedly.

The ancient alien astronaut theory presupposes that thousands of years ago even before recorded history our planet was visited by astronauts from another world, intelligent beings with technology beyond our own today.

Many archeologists around the world consider modern day Iraq as the “cradle of civilization.” Between 3500 and 1900 BC the Tigris and Euphrates river were the home of the Sumerian people who prospered in this region.

Today when we read or seek information about the Sumer and the Anunnaki or the people that inhabited that part of the world we come across controversial author Zecharia Sitchin.

In 1976, author Sitchin published his personal translations of the Sumerian texts in a series of books called “The Earth Chronicles.“

According to Sitchin, the clay tablets describe an alien race known as the Anunnaki, who came to Earth to mine gold. Sitchin practically suggests that extraterrestrial visited earth in the past because their home-planet needed gold to survive.

Approximately some 250,000 years ago, according to Sitchin, the ancient Anunnaki merged their Alien genes with that of Homo Erectus and created a species known as Homo Sapiens, obtaining, as a result, a genetically bicameral species. However, humans were a hybrid species and could not procreate. Since the demand for humans as workers became greater, the ancient Anunnaki once again manipulated ancient mankind so they could reproduce on their own.

Based on The Cosmic Code, the sixth book of The Earth Chronicles by Zecharia Sitchin, this is the real historical timeline of our planet:

Events Before The Deluge

450,000 years ago,
On Nibiru, a distant member of our solar system, life faces slow extinction as the planet’s atmosphere erodes. Deposed by Anu, the ruler Alalu escapes in a spaceship and finds refuge on Earth. He discovers that Earth has gold that can be used to protect Nibiru’s atmosphere.

445,000
Led by Enki, a son of Anu, the Anunnaki land on Earth, establish Eridu -Earth Station I – for extracting gold from the waters of the Persian Gulf.

430,000
Earth’s climate mellows. More Anunnaki arrive on Earth, among them Enki’s half-sister Ninhursag, Chief Medical Officer.

416,000
As gold production falters, Anu arrives on Earth with Enlil, the heir apparent. It is decided to obtain the vital gold by mining it in southern Africa. Drawing lots, Enlil wins command of Earth Mission; Enki is relegated to Africa. On departing Earth, Anu is challenged by Alalu’s grandson.

400,000
Seven functional settlements in southern Mesopotamia include a Spaceport (Sippar), Mission Control Center (Nippur), a metallurgical center (Shuruppak). The ores arrive by ships from Africa; the refined metal is sent aloft to orbiters manned by Igigi, then transferred to spaceships arriving periodically from Nibiru.

380,000
Gaining the support of the Igigi, Alalu’s grandson attempts to seize mastery over Earth. The Enlilites win the War of the Olden Gods.

300,000
The Anunnaki toiling in the gold mines mutiny. Enki and Ninhursag create Primitive Workers through genetic manipulation of Ape woman; they take over the manual chores of the Anunnaki. Enlil raids the mines, brings the Primitive Workers to the Edin in Mesopotamia. Given the ability to procreate, Homo Sapiens begins to multiply.

200,000
Life on Earth regresses during a new glacial period.

100,000
Climate warms again. The Anunnaki (the biblical Nefilim), to Enlil’s growing annoyance, marry the daughters of Man.

75,000
The “accursation of Earth” – a new Ice Age-begins. Regressive types of Man roam the Earth. Cro-Magnon man survives.

49,000
Enki and Ninhursag elevate humans of Anunnaki parentage to rule in Shuruppak. Enlil enraged. Plots Mankind’s demise.

13,000
Realizing that the passage of Nibiru in Earth’s proximity will trigger an immense tidal wave, Enlil makes the Anunnaki swear to keep the impending calamity a secret from Mankind.

Also read: The 10th Sumerian Tablet: The Anunnaki Built The Pyramids

Events After The Deluge

11,000 B.C.
Enki breaks the oath, instructs Ziusudra/Noah to build a submersible ship. The Deluge sweeps over the Earth; the Anunnaki witness the destruction from their orbiting spacecraft. Enlil agrees to grant the remnants of Mankind implements and seeds; agriculture begins in the highlands. Enki domesticates animals.

10,500 B.C.
The descendants of Noah are allotted three regions. Ninurta, Enlil’s foremost son, dams the mountains and drains the rivers to make Mesopotamia habitable; Enki reclaims the Nile valley. The Sinai peninsula is retained by the Anunnaki for a post-Diluvial spaceport; a control center is established on Mount Moriah (the future Jerusalem).

9,780 B.C.
Ra/Marduk, Enki’s firstborn son, divides dominion over Egypt between Osiris and Seth.

9,330 B.C.
Seth seizes and dismembers Osiris, assumes sole rule over the Nile Valley.

8,970 B.C.
Horus avenges his father Osiris by launching the First Pyramid War. Seth escapes to Asia, seizes the Sinai peninsula and Canaan.

8,670 B.C.
Opposed to the resulting control of all the space facilities by Enki’s descendants, the Enlilites launch the Second Pyramid War. The victorious Ninurta empties the Great Pyramid of its equipment. Ninhursag, the half-sister of Enki and Enlil, convenes a peace conference. The division of Earth is reaffirmed. Rule over Egypt transferred from the Ra/Marduk dynasty to that of Thoth. Heliopolis built as a substitute Beacon City.

8,500 B.C.
The Anunnaki establish outposts at the gateway to the space facilities; Jericho is one of them.

7,400 B.C.
As the era of peace continues, the Anunnaki grant Mankind new advances; the Neolithic period begins. Demi-gods rule over Egypt.

3,800 B.C.
Urban civilization begins in Sumer as the Anunnaki reestablish there the Olden Cities, beginning with Eridu and Nippur. Anu comes to Earth for a pageantful visit. A new city, Uruk (Erech), is built in his honor; he makes its temple the abode of his beloved granddaughter Inanna/lshtar.

Kingship On Earth

3,760
Mankind granted kingship. Kish is first capital under the aegis of Ninurta. The alendar began at Nippur. Civilization blossoms out in Sumer (the First Region).

3,450
Primacy in Sumer transferred to Nannar/Sin. Marduk proclaims Babylon “Gateway of the Gods.” The “Tower of Babel” incident. The Anunnaki confuse Mankind’s languages. His coup frustrated, Marduk/Ra returns to Egypt, deposes Thoth, seizes his younger brother Dumuzi who had betrothed Inanna. Dumuzi accidentally killed; Marduk imprisoned alive in the Great Pyramid. Freed through an emergency shaft, he goes into exile.

3,100-3, 350
Years of chaos end with installation of first Egyptian Pharaoh in Memphis. Civilization comes to the Second Region.

2,900
Kingship in Sumer transferred to Erech. Inanna given dominion over the Third Region; the Indus Valley Civilization begins.

2,650
Sumer’s royal capital shifts about. Kingship deteriorates. Enlil loses patience with the unruly human multitudes.

2,371
Inanna falls in love with Sharru-Kin (Sargon). He establishes new capital city. Agade (Akkad). Akkadian empire launched.

2,316
Aiming to rule the four regions, Sargon removes sacred soil from Babylon. The Marduk-Inanna conflict flares up again. It ends when Nergal, Marduk’s brother, journeys from South Africa to Babylon and persuades Marduk to leave Mesopotamia.

2,291
Naram-Sin ascends the throne of Akkad. Directed by the warlike Inanna, he penetrates the Sinai peninsula, invades Egypt.

2,255
Inanna usurps the power in Mesopotamia; Naram-Sin defies Nippur. The Great Anunnaki obliterate Agade. Inanna escapes. Sumer and Akkad occupied by foreign troops loyal to Enlil and Ninurta.

2,220
Sumerian civilization rises to new heights under enlightened rulers of Lagash. Thoth helps its king Gudea build a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta.

2,193
Terah, Abraham’s father, born in Nippur into a priestly-royal family.

2,180
Egypt divided; followers of Ra/Marduk retain the south; Pharaohs opposed to him gain the throne of lower Egypt.

2,130
As Enlil and Ninurta are increasingly away, central authority also deteriorates in Mesopotamia. Inanna’s attempts to regain the kingship for Erech does not last.

Reference: Ancient-Code.com

The Ancient ‘Buache Map’ Is Depicting Ice-Free Antarctica

Numerous maps have been discovered depicting our planet as it was before the last ice age. Many people claim that before written history, extremely advanced ancient civilizations existed on Earth and these ancient cultures, ignored by mainstream history, had well-developed cartography systems comparable in precision to the ones we have today.

No one has been able to explain just how these extremely ancient maps, depicting regions of our planet like Antarctica without ice, dating back thousands of years exist. Many argue that these maps are the product of Antediluvian civilizations that inhabited our planet thousands of years before written mainstream history.

The Antediluvian period or the Pre-Flood period is referred to the time ‘before the great deluge’. In the Bible, this time is set between the fall of man and the Noachian deluge, the story of the Flood as described in Genesis.

While most of us are familiar with the Piri Reis map – which has been validated by scholars who remain baffled and cannot explain their precision and level of detail — most of us are unaware that there are numerous other maps that depict the same scenery.

One of those maps is the controversial cartographic chart created by a French geographer by the name of Philippe Buache de la Neuville.

the ancient 'buache map' is depicting ice free antarctica

The Buache map has two versions. One of the charts is believed to accurately depict the ice-free coastline of Antarctica while the other chart makes no mention of the continent whatsoever. Many indicate that Buache was unaware of the existence of the Icy Continent and that his depictions were nothing more than a hypothesis.

The 18th-century map is claimed to accurately depict the continent of Antarctica before it was buried by thick layers of Ice. The only way for the map to correctly portray this is if someone mapped the Antarctic continent when it was free from ice.

Read more about the Piri Reis map here: This 5,000-Year-Old Map Shatters The Official History Of The Human Species

Reference: Ancient-Code.com 

Fake History 1904: Germany’s “Genocide” in Namibia

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JULY 10, 2021


NY Times:
 Germany Apologized for a Genocide. It’s Nowhere Near Enough.

The supine scum governing occupied Germany have once again wrongly shamed the name of a once-great people. As if the eternal groveling over felonious fables such as the culpability for both World Wars, “Kristallnacht”, “Nazi-looted art”  and “zee gas chambers” , weren’t enough — the Judaized Germans have, in recent years, been pounded over the head over their colonial-era “genocide” in what is today the southwestern African nation of Namibia. After 100 years of “hurtful denial,” the demented and de-balled democrats of Deutschland did finally “admit” to the “genocide.” From the article:

“More than a century ago, Germany carried out a systematic massacre. From 1904 to 1908, in what is now Namibia, the German colonial government killed about 80,000 Herero and Nama people.

In May, 113 years later, Germany at last acknowledged this massacre as genocidal. “In light of Germany’s historical and moral responsibility,” said Germany’s foreign minister, Heiko Maas, “we will ask Namibia and the descendants of the victims for forgiveness.” With this request for forgiveness came a “gesture” of $1.35 billion, to be spent on reconstruction and development projects and health care and training programs over 30 years. The Namibian government accepted. But many Nama and Herero feel it is nowhere near enough.

One of the co-writers of this commie crap, Kavena Hambira, is a descendant of Herero “survivors” ™ — while the other, young Miriam Gleckman-Krut, is a descendant of Holohoax “survivors” . Ah, show us the shekels Kaveena and Miriam. Show us the shekels.

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Kavena Hambira is chairman of the Namibia Institute for Democracy, a “civil society” (Globalist) organization. 
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Generation Z Jewess Miriam Gleckman-Krut is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology at the University of Michigan. The two anti-Whites want more “reparations” for Namibia and would like the German educational system to mandate the teaching about the “massacre.”
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Nambia
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Self-flagellating Germans join up with money-grubbing local Africans to call for “reparations.”.
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In Namibia — “Gimme, gimme, gimme.”

Now, about this “genocide.” First of all, putting all cognitive bias aside, Germans simply don’t do that type of stuff unless they are threatened. Massacres are more of a British or Jewish thing. So, right away, the newly accepted account of this historical event stinks of fiction. Toward the end of the 19th century, Germany, like all other European powers, sought some more “living space” outside of its industrializing and overpopulated confines. In the process of African exploration and colonization, the big bad White Man brought some really cool, never-before-seen stuff to the sparsely-populated continent — ya know, really hi-tech things like the wheel, the plow, 2-story structures, animal harnesses, roads, coal-burning power, shoes, written language, etc. The positive effects of advanced civilization benefited the natives. Some were grateful and friendly. Others, not so much.

A “rebellion” broke out in January 1904 and continued until March 1907. The leader of the Herero tribes, Samuel Maharero ordered the extermination of all German White people, but specifically excluded the English, whose own colonial holdings surrounded those of the Germans. Much like the slaughter of the French Whites of Haiti a century earlier, the preparations for the racial attack were kept secret. The White victims had no time to prepare or protect themselves from the coming bloodbath. Several hundred mounted Herero attacked — killing 123 Germans and torching buildings. Germans who had escaped the farm attacks flocked to urban areas for protection. Within days, the violence had spread north. A German military station was occupied and every soldier was put to death, many of them mutilated.

Just thought we would mention those wee little contextual details which Kaveena & Miriam conveniently deemed not “fit to print.” No “reparations” for descendants of the slaughtered Germans, eh?

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Samuel Maharero — mass murderer of innocent German colonial farmers. 
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The Hereros, NOT the Germans, were the ones aiming for a racial genocide! 
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A 1904 US cartoon by Bob Satterfield depicts savages chasing the Germans — very “politically incorrect” by today’s standards.

News of the slaughter shocked the German mainland. GeneralLothar von Trotha was tasked with protecting the peaceful Germans of Africa — who, by the way, never owned slaves and only laid claim to virgin lands for their fruitful farming which benefited everyone. Von Trotha didn’t mess around. He spoke to the Herero barbarians in the only language they would understand — brute force.

Trotha’s Order:

“The Hereros are German subjects no longer. They have killed, stolen, cut off the ears and other parts of the body of wounded soldiers, and now are too cowardly to want to fight any longer. I announce to the people that whoever hands me one of the chiefs shall receive 1,000 marks, and 5,000 marks for Samuel Maherero. The Herero nation must now leave the country. If it refuses, I shall compel it to do so with the ‘long tube’ (cannon). Any Herero found inside the German frontier, with or without a gun or cattle, will be executed. I shall spare neither women nor children. I shall give the order to drive them away and fire on them. Such are my words to the Herero people.”

He later clarified that women and children were not to be shot:

“The shooting at women and children is to be understood as shooting above their heads, so as to force them to run away. I assume absolutely that this proclamation will result in taking no more male prisoners, but will not degenerate into atrocities against women and children. The latter will run away if one shoots at them a couple of times. The troops will remain conscious of the good reputation of the German soldier.

But Kaveena & Miriam put a different spin on von Lotha. Some self-evident (and very familiar-sounding) fakery, from the article:

“Von Trotha confined survivors to camps, where captives were worked brutally hard and subjected to medical experiments. Some were sterilized; others were injected with arsenic and opium, or deliberately infected with smallpox, typhus and tuberculosis. An all-female camp was established for the purpose of sexual violence.

OK, Miriam. Anything you say. (palm to face, sighing, shaking head) — Say there, Miriam — instead of piously posturing against the Germans; why not lead by example by writing a reparations check to some Palestinian family whose recent ancestors were massacred at Deir Yassin, and whose property was stolen? Heck, youse guys are still jacking-up Gaza from time to time. What do ya say, Miriam? (sound of crickets)

The “indigenous peoples” (who had actually migrated to the German area, probably in search of work and a better life, as usual) were indeed forced out. Was there any other alternative in light of the massacre of Germans? We do not doubt that many Herero (who started the conflict) perished as a result of the war and the banishment; but we sense that the “80,000”( pending) number being bandied about these days has a certain “6 millionish”  malodorous scent about it — meaning, grossly exaggerated.

While researching this matter, a few clues point to a possible “handler” behind the rampaging Africans — a notorious global trouble-maker whose sordid history of arming and inciting savages to attack their enemies is actually spelled out in the American Declaration of Independence. Do the following dots connect? We believe they very well might:

* The African butcher Maherero decreed that no British were to be killed
The Africans were very well-armed and supplied. By whom?
* The British and French inked the “Entente Cordial” in that very same year, 1904. The pact was an anti-
German scheme which, 10 years later, would trigger World War I
* During World War I, South Africa (part of the British Empire) took the German colony (and its diamond mines)

I’ll betcha shekels to bagels that agents of the British Deep State and their Rothschild senior partners masterminded the murderous attack on the German colony in 1904. What do “you guys” think?

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General Lothar von Trotha was disgusted by the brutality of the Hereros. He dealt with them severely, but not unjustly.

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Thomas Jefferson wrote in the Declaration of July 4th: “He (British King George III) has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.”

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The British-Rothschild syndicate wanted the whole of southernmost Africa. Only the German (red, white & black) colony of Southwest Africa stood in their way.