The Origins Of The New World Order

Secret societies, the unseen hands that steer national and international affairs from the shadows, go back to the dawn of Western civilisation. The individual most famously linked to these occult forces is Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830), a Jesuit trained philosopher and lay professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt in southern Germany.

the origins of the new world order

On 1 May 1776 Weishaupt founded a secret society called the ‘Perfectilibists’ (which soon became known as the ‘Order of the Illuminati’). The Illuminati recruited over 2,000 influential followers, but apparently lasted only until March 1785 when the Bavarian Government uncovered the conspiracy, exiled Weishaupt and outlawed the Order.

Some investigators suggest that rather than being wound up in 1785, the Illuminati (‘enlightened ones’) continued in existence to the present day. For the past 200 years controversy persisted over its role in influencing global affairs.

In 1798 John Robison, professor of philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, published Proofs of Conspiracy, a book alleging an Illuminati/Freemasonry plot to conspire against all religions, kings and governments of Europe.1

According to Robison, the Illuminati had been instrumental in fomenting the worst excesses of the French Revolution. That same year the Jesuit Abbé Augustin de Barruel published Memoires pour Servir a l’Histoire de Jacobinisme which supported Robison’s thesis.2

A century and a half later, Nesta Webster and William Guy Carr revived conspiracy theories about the Illuminati.

Nesta Webster (1876-1960), who was linked to the British Union of Fascists, wrote that rather than being banished, the Illuminati remained active and within a few years had “multiplied its hotbeds all through the south of Germany, and as a consequence in Saxony, in Prussia, in Sweden, and even in Russia.”3

William Guy Carr, an English born Canadian naval officer and lay Christian preacher, supported this thesis, maintaining that Weishaupt had been retained by moneylenders, including the House of Rothschild. Carr claimed there was an evil force at the forefront of an international conspiracy to destroy religious institutions and national governments in order to bring about a “Satanic One World Government.”4

According to Carr, the conspirators use a variety of methods to help them accomplish their aims, including:

1) Monetary and sex bribes to obtain control of individuals already occupying important positions. Such recruits are then held in bondage through blackmail, threats of financial ruin, public exposure or physical harm or death of their loved ones.

2) Illuminati in colleges and universities recruit students possessing exceptional mental ability.

3) Individuals trapped into Illuminati control are placed behind the scenes of all governments as ‘experts’ and ‘specialists’ who advise adoption of policies which serve the secret plans for one world government.

4) Control of the press and all other agencies which distribute information to the public.5

However, Illuminati researcher Dr. Tony Page says that Webster and Carr totally misrepresented the situation and were anti-Semites indulging in madcap conspiracy theory.

Page translated Weishaupt documents from the original German and presents him as a much maligned moral and virtuous man whose intentions were “assuredly high minded and benign.” A man who “strove for far nobler and morally exalted goals than are properly ascribed to him.

In fact, his intention (naive perhaps) but in my view, sincere, was to promote and disseminate human virtue, equality and freedom, and the happiness and dignity that flow from them.”6

Today, some see the Illuminati “as a major factor and influence in international power politics, allegedly fomenting wars, civil disorder and revolutions in their attempt to establish a one-world government.”7 It appears the jury is still out on whether the Illuminati is an ongoing occult force.

What we can say is that in our own intensive research over the past 10 years on the true origins of the First World War, we found no direct connection whatsoever to Weishaupt’s creation.

The secret society that we identify as responsible for the war employed similar tactics, but was a very different, very English creation. Furthermore, it remained concealed until exposed by the late Professor Carroll Quigley in the latter half of the 20th century.

Quigley (1910-1977) was a highly esteemed American historian who moved in Establishment circles, lectured at top universities, including Harvard, Princeton and Georgetown, and was a trusted consultant to both the US Department of Defense and US Navy.

He studied this secret network for 20 years and was permitted to examine its records. In 21st century parlance, Carroll Quigley was the whistle-blower par-excellence.

THE QUIGLEY ENIGMA

Professor Quigley wrote that the Rhodes secret society, or the ‘Milner Group’ as he called it after Cecil Rhodes’s death, was “one of the most important historical facts of the twentieth century” and of such significance that “evidence of its existence is not hard to find, if one knows where to look.”8

The ‘Milner Group’ exposed by Quigley is now widely recognised and variably named by others as the ‘Hidden Power’, the ‘Money Power’, the ‘Deep State’, or ‘the men behind the curtain’. All these labels are pertinent, but we call them, collectively, the Secret Elite.

Without Quigley’s revelations, the lid on this secret society would still be closed today. By opening Pandora’s Box and revealing some of the evils therein, he enabled others to see the truth.

His work exposing this powerful group has been enhanced and developed through years of careful research by other investigators into an explanation of how control of the civilised world has steadily been acquired through wars, economic manipulation and political chicanery by generations of privilege and money.

Our own work, including the book Hidden History: The Secret Origins of The First World War, closely examines the men involved and reveals their nefarious global influence was greater even than Quigley believed.

We garnered solid evidence that its members were directly responsible for taking the world to war in 1914 and deliberately prolonged the terrible carnage for over four long years while making massive fortunes from it.

The immensely rich and powerful Secret Elite controlled the British and US governments from behind the scenes, then as now, and much of the global mayhem over the last century arose at their instigation.

While Professor Quigley did mankind a great service, he remains an enigma. He exposed this ruthless, anti-democratic, totalitarian organisation and anguished over their determined attempts to suppress his writings, yet back-tracked on some of his original findings as if in fear of his life.

He also side-stepped a number of key issues and failed to discuss the Secret Elite’s role in the genesis of the 1914-18 war, or their audacious coup d’etat in 1916 whereby they literally took over the British government.

Rather bizarrely, Quigley stated that he agreed with their goals and aims.9 He did, however, disagree with their methods.

Their tendency to place power and influence into hands chosen by friendship rather than merit, their oblivion to the consequences of their actions, their ignorance of the point of view of persons in other countries or of persons in other classes in their own country – these things, it seems to me, have brought many of the things which they and I hold dear close to disaster.

In this Group were persons… who must command the admiration and affection of all who knew them. On the other hand, in this Group were persons whose lives have been a disaster to our way of life.

Unfortunately, in the long run, both in the Group and in the world, the influence of the latter kind has been stronger than the influence of the former.… I feel that the truth has a right to be told, and, once told, can be an injury to no men of good will.10

There is something deeply puzzling about Quigley’s assertion that while their methods brought much of what he held dear “close to disaster,” he agreed with their goals and aims for global control. These powerful men intended to replace democratically elected governments, arguing that their rule would be the rule of the best, whether or not the people wanted it.

A few researchers raise the possibility that Quigley was at some stage an actual member of the secret society, but failed to admit it. We believe it far more likely his strange statements of support were down to self-preservation.

In his major works – Tragedy and Hope and The Anglo-American Establishment – he narrated a history peopled by men who successfully concealed their power and influence, their connivance and common purpose. These individuals (and their descendants and agents ever since) conspired in secret towards the establishment of a world government that ultimately they, and they alone, would control.

It is worth noting that Quigley’s histories have themselves been subject to suppression. Tragedy and Hope was removed from bookstore shelves by unknown persons and withdrawn from sale shortly after its release. His publisher, the Macmillan Company, destroyed the book’s original plates and lied to him for the next six years.11

Quigley believed that powerful people suppressed the book because it exposed matters they did not want known. In this instance, unlike his exposure of the British Establishment, he did not name his tormentors.

IN THE BEGINNING

The opening passage of Quigley’s The Anglo-American Establishment may read like a John le Carré thriller, but it is no spy fiction:

One wintry afternoon in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.

The staunch British imperialists who met that day – Cecil Rhodes, William Stead and Lord Esher – were well-known public figures but it should be noted from the outset that each was linked to infinitely greater wealth and influence. They were joined weeks later by Lord Alfred Milner and Lord Nathaniel Rothschild, the international merchant banker and richest man in the world.

He was inducted together with Lords Salisbury and Rosebery, whose families had for generations controlled the Conservative and Liberal parties in Britain and ruled the country as their personal fiefdom. Rothschild provided the financial clout while Salisbury and Rosebery provided the long-standing patronage and political networks.12

Cecil Rhodes, in association with Rothschild, had made his fortune in the gold and diamond mines of South Africa. Stead was the most prominent English journalist of the day and a moral crusader of great standing.

Esher represented the interests of the monarchy from Queen Victoria’s final years, through the exuberant excesses of King Edward VII, to the more sedate but pliable King George V. It was through Esher that the monarch was kept fully appraised of Secret Elite business.13

Alfred Milner, a contemporary of Rhodes at Oxford University, was a self-made man of ability and ideas who began his working life as an aspiring lawyer, turned to journalism, led the political agitation against the Boer separatists in South Africa, and eventually emerged as an immensely powerful and successful power-broker.

Milner was the master manipulator, the iron-willed assertive intellectual who offered that one essential factor: strong leadership. On Cecil Rhodes’s death in 1902, he became the undisputed leader of the world’s most powerful and far reaching secret society. These were the founding fathers of what we recognise today as the ‘New World Order’ movement.

They met at private town houses and magnificent stately homes. These might be lavish weekend affairs or dinners in private clubs which provided suitable London bases for their intrigues. The heady mix of international finance, political manipulation and the control of government policy was at the heart of this small clique who set out to dominate the world.

They drew up their plan for a secret society that would take political control in Britain and, later by extension, the United States of America. They renewed the Anglo-Saxon bond between the two countries – the ‘special relationship’ – expanding their power base to bring Anglophile Americans into the secret brotherhood; men who would go on to dominate the world through financial institutions, global corporations and dependent governments.

Wars, revolutions and other major events of the last 100 years are directly attributable to these individuals. The Boer War and the destruction of Germany in 1914-18 were merely the first steps in their long-term strategy.

The secret society comprised concentric circles with an inner core of trusted associates known as “The Society of the Elect” who unquestionably knew that they were members of an exclusive cabal devoted to taking and holding power worldwide.

A second circle “The Association of Helpers” was larger and quite fluid in its membership. A third outer ring comprised members who may or may not have been aware they were either an integral part of, or inadvertently being used by, a secret society, though “it is more likely they knew it.”14

The overlapping rings are themselves concealed, hidden behind formally organised groups of no obvious political significance. As Quigley put it, the group was able to “conceal its existence quite successfully, and many of its influential members, satisfied to possess the reality of power rather than the appearance of power, are unknown even to close students of British history.”15

In the early 20th century its tentacles spread throughout the British Empire to America, Russia, France, the Balkans and South Africa. Their targets were agents in the highest offices of foreign governments who were bought and nurtured for future use.

What’s more, they had the power to control history, to turn history from enlightenment to deception. The Secret Elite dictated the writing and teaching of history from the ivory towers of academia down to the smallest of schools. They carefully controlled the publication of official government papers, the selection of documents for inclusion in the official version of history, and refused access to any evidence that might betray their covert existence.

Incriminating documents were burned, removed from official records, shredded, falsified or deliberately rewritten, so that what remains for genuine researchers and historians is carefully selected material. Their ambitions overrode humanity and the consequences of their actions have been minimised, ignored or denied.

SPREADING THEIR TENTACLES

One of the problems facing anyone who turns to Quigley’s seminal The Anglo American Establishment is that it makes for a difficult read. Like several of the early chapters of the Christian Bible, his inter-connecting lists name many from the aristocracy, big business, high finance, politics and the press. Some were linked by matrimonial alliances while others by their gratitude for titles and positions of power.20 He devotes an entire chapter revealing how the Secret Elite controlled The Times (then Britain’s most influential newspaper) for more than 50 years with the exception of the period 1919-1922.21

A list of Oxford graduates, especially those given fellowships at All Souls College, included Milner’s heir apparent, Lionel Curtis, and numerous others who later gained positions of great significance and power.

Indeed, they all did, every single name listed by Quigley. Oxford gave the Secret Elite access to influential professorships, some of which they created and funded themselves, such as the Beit Chair of Colonial History, established in 1905.

It remains a serious concern that Carroll Quigley was absolutely correct when pointing an accusing finger at those who monopolised “so completely the writing and the teaching of the history of their own period.”22

There is no ambivalence in his accusation. The Secret Elite controlled the writing and teaching of history through numerous avenues including the press, but none more effectively than at Oxford University where they held huge influence over Balliol, New College and All Souls, and largely dominated the intellectual life of Oxford in the field of history.23 They ensured we learn only those ‘facts’ that support their version of history.

The influence was so powerful that they controlled the Dictionary of National Biography, meaning the Secret Elite wrote the biographies of its own members. They created their own official history of key members for public consumption, striking out any incriminating evidence and portraying the best public-spirited image that could be safely manufactured. Has anything changed?

Oxford University was also the Secret Elite base for the Rhodes Scholarships, funded by the legacy left by Cecil Rhodes when he died in 1902. Rhodes’s wish was to create a “worldwide” secret group devoted to English ideals and to the Empire as the embodiment of these ideals,24 and the scholarships brought that international dimension to the society.

They “were merely a facade to conceal the secret society, or, more accurately, they were to be one of the instruments by which members of the secret society could carry out his purpose.” Professor Quigley leaves us in no doubt that the secret society is the real power behind the scholarships.25

From its inception, Rhodes Scholarships favoured American students, with 100 places allocated, two for each of the 50 states and territories, whereas only 60 were made available for the entire British Empire and, strangely, several from Germany. The ‘best talents’ from the ‘best families’ were to be nurtured at Oxford University and imbued with an appreciation of ‘Englishness’ and the importance of the “retention of the unity of the Empire.”

In The Anglo-American Establishment, Quigley concluded that the secret cabal advanced its power-base through a triple-front penetration in politics, the press and education.26 We would go further, and can but wonder why he omitted banking and the military-industrial complex from his analysis. Politicians will always be easy targets.

Ambition, greed and sexual proclivity can be nurtured and harnessed. Sometimes men of real stature come to the fore and bring strong leadership to the cause.

In the early years Alfred Milner assumed that mantle. Fired by a zeal forged by Ruskin at Oxford, he was consumed by the need to establish the primacy of upper-class Englishness at the pinnacle of world power. He believed in the need to bring the British Empire and the American ideal together to sweep aside any rival for world domination.

Milner went to South Africa in 1897 to save it from falling to the Boers. He deliberately started the Boer War and saved the diamond and gold mines for fellow Secret Elites Rhodes, Rothschild, Beit and Bailey. He was idolised by Cecil Rhodes who placed his legacy in Milner’s safekeeping, and he was rewarded by the King with a knighthood and then a Viscountcy.

Critically, in South Africa between 1897 and 1905, he built a personal following of young carefully chosen civil servants who loyally followed his every decision behind the scenes in British and world politics. Lord Alfred Milner was arguably the most important man living in the first decades of the 20th century, yet his name remains virtually unknown outside academic and political circles. Why?

MILNER’S LEGACY

To demonstrate the privileged path that the Secret Elite created in their quest to establish a ‘New World Order’, we have chosen to follow the trail that began with Alfred Milner, the undisputed leader for 23 years following Rhodes’s death in 1902.

Critically, his most important achievement in South Africa was the creation of a network of extremely able acolytes to whom he entrusted the future direction of his cause: the domination of the world by the Anglo-Saxon race. His secretariat in South Africa comprised young men of “breeding, ability and conviction” from Oxford University, All Souls College in particular.

Dubbed “Milner’s Kindergarten,” they absorbed his commitment to Ruskin’s philosophy, his disdain for career politicians and his concern that democracy as it had developed in the Western world was corrupt and untrustworthy. It was akin to “a religious brotherhood like the Jesuits, a church for the extension of the British Empire.”27

From 1909 Milner began expanding the Kindergarten into a highly secretive organisation called the “Round Table,” with branches in South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and, crucially, the United States. (It is not to be confused with a benign charitable organisation of the same name.)

The grand Arthurian title suggested equality of rank and importance, nobility of purpose and fairness in debate, but was nothing of the kind.

Milner, and most of the Group, held democracy in contempt, and far inferior to rule by those who had an “intellectual capacity for judging the public interest” and “some moral capacity for treating it as paramount to their own.”28

Wealth, of course, also counted and “the key to all economics and prosperity was considered to rest with banking and finance”29 which the Secret Elite controlled. Alfred Milner acted as both elder statesman and father figure to the Round Table with his role described as “President of an Intellectual Republic.”

The Round Table groups across the world kept in touch through regular correspondence and a quarterly journal called The Round Table that was controlled by the Secret Elite.

They saw Britain as the defender of all that was fine or civilised in the modern world. Her “civilising mission” was to be carried out by force if necessary, for the “function of force is to give moral ideas time to take root.”

Asians, for example, would be compelled to accept “civilisation” on the grounds they would be better off under British rule than that of fellow Asians.

“To be sure, the blessings to be extended to the less fortunate peoples of the world did not include democracy.” They would simply be educated up to a level where they could appreciate and cherish “British ideals.”30 The ‘White Man’s Burden’ is indeed great.

Milner, his Round Table, and the Secret Elite generally saw the new Germany with its economic, industrial and commercial strength as the great threat to their global ambitions.

In The Round Table journal of August 1911, Lord Lothian, a member of the Secret Elite’s inner core, wrote: “There are at present two codes of international morality – the British or Anglo-Saxon and the continental or German. Both cannot prevail.”31

Alliances with France and Russia were created for the specific task of destroying Germany through a prolonged war.32 These men had no fear of war, though they rarely put themselves in the direct firing line.

EXPANDING THE ANGLO-AMERICAN PRIMACY

Cecil Rhodes had long dreamed of Anglo-American unity, and in 1891 actually discussed the possibility of achieving it by Britain joining the United States.33 On his death, the Secret Elite developed an even greater appreciation of America’s vast potential and the need for closer union.

They adjusted the original concept of British race supremacy to Anglo-Saxon supremacy, so that Rhodes’s dream had only to be slightly modified. They created a common ideology and world outlook among the peoples of the United Kingdom and the United States, and the instruments and practices of cooperation in order to pursue parallel policies.34

Alfred Milner believed these goals should be pursued by a secret political and economic elite influencing “journalistic, educational and propaganda agencies” behind the scenes. The flow of money into the United States during the 19th century advanced industrial development to the immense benefit of the millionaires it created: Rockefeller, Carnegie, Morgan, Vanderbilt and their associates. The Rothschilds represented British interests, either directly through front companies or indirectly through agencies they controlled.

Small groups of massively rich individuals on both sides of the Atlantic knew one another well, and the Secret Elite in London initiated the very select and secretive dining club, the Pilgrims, that brought them together on a regular basis. On 11 July 1902, an inaugural meeting was held at the Carlton Hotel of what became known as the London Chapter of the Pilgrims Society. It was to have a select membership limited by individual scrutiny to 500.

Ostensibly, The Pilgrims was created to “promote goodwill, good friendship and everlasting peace” between Britain and the United States, but its highly secretive and exclusive membership leaves little doubt as to its real purpose.35

Seven months later the American chapter was formally created on similarly exclusive lines. This was the pool of wealth and talent that the Secret Elite drew together to promote its agenda in the years preceding the First World War.

Behind an image of the Pilgrim Fathers, the persecuted pioneers of Christian values, this elite cabal advocated the idea that “Englishmen and Americans would promote international friendship through their pilgrimages to and fro across the Atlantic.”

It presented itself as a spontaneous movement to promote democracy across the world, and most of the membership probably believed that. But the Pilgrims included a select collective of the wealthiest figures in both Britain and the United States who were deeply involved with the Secret Elite. They shared Rhodes’s dream and wanted to be party to it.36

In Britain, at least 18 members of the Secret Elite, including Lords Rothschild, Curzon, Northcliffe and Esher, and Sir Edward Grey and Arthur Balfour, attended Pilgrims dinners, though the regularity of their attendance is difficult to establish. Such is the perennial problem with secret groups. We know something about the guests invited to dinner but not what was discussed between courses.

In New York, members included both the Rockefeller and Morgan dynasties, and many men in senior government posts. The power elite in America was New York centred, carried great influence in domestic and international politics, and was heavily indulgent of Yale, Harvard and Princeton universities.

Within a short period of time they created an American version of what Carroll Quigley termed the triple-front penetration of politics, the press and education. The Pilgrims Society brought together American money and British aristocracy, royalty, presidents and diplomatic representatives. It was indeed a special relationship.37

Because closer ties with the United States were considered of such crucial importance, a Round Table group was also established in New York to further develop links between Westminster and Washington, and high finance in the City of London and Wall Street.

It was supported by Rockefeller and Morgan, managed in secret, hidden from the electorate and the politicians, and normally its meetings went unreported in the press. Members aimed to gain political influence and set the political agenda in the US, but they were rarely willing to speak out in public.

All was to be carried out in secret.38 How dangerous are those who believe they have the capacity to think and plan for the world’s good, impervious to the will of the people and disdainful of democracy itself?

The first American to be directly associated with the Round Table was George Louis Beer, an outspoken Anglophile academic and writer who contributed reports and articles to their magazine for many years. Beer called Alfred Milner “the intellectual leader of the most progressive school of imperial thought throughout Europe,” and was one of the chief supporters of America’s intervention in the First World War. His link to the Secret Elite opened many associated doors and Beer became the recognised expert on colonial questions at the Paris Peace Conference in 1918-19.

In the manner which typifies how these powerful men write their own histories, Beer and his Secret Elite compatriot, Lord Eustace Percy, later drew up the outline plan for the History of the Peace Conference.

In other words, the Secret Elite made sure that the record for future generations was one they dictated. They supported Beer’s appointment to the head of the Mandate Group of the League of Nations and he was one of the creators of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London (Chatham House), its American branch, The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) and sister organisation the Institute of Pacific Relations.39 Lest there be any doubt, these were all Secret Elite creations.

Milner’s Kindergarten had been expanded into the Round Table and that, in turn, had been expanded into the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London, the CFR in New York, and other Institutes across the globe.

The dominant role of the CFR in controlling American policy and politics cannot be overstated because almost all of America’s leadership has stemmed from this elite group.

That includes US presidents and their advisors, cabinet members, ambassadors, members of the board of the Federal Reserve, directors of the largest banks and financial houses, presidents of universities and heads of metropolitan newspapers, news services, and television networks.

“It is not an exaggeration to describe this group as the hidden government of the United States.”40

It is no less than a carbon copy of how the Secret Elite took control of Britain in the 20th century. These organisations were direct extensions of the Round Table Groups and have helped drive the Secret Elite agenda through the 20th century and beyond.

Carroll Quigley was the trailblazer in unmasking the Secret Elite, and it is plain to see they still dominate the British and American governments among others; still control banking and finance, politics, the press, the military-industrial complex, the universities and the key offices of state.

Wherever you live, ask yourself this, “is it happening here?” The grotesque plan set in motion by Rhodes and Milner at the end of the 19th century rolls on. Can it be stopped from reaching its ultimate destination – totalitarian, elite-controlled one world government?

The challenge is to reach beyond what Gore Vidal described as a conditioned response to the word ‘conspiracy’ where people react with a smirk and a chuckle; where historical analysis and contemporary evidence that demonstrates the power these people wield is dismissed as the product of ‘nuts and loners’ or fringe extremists.41

If we give up trying to educate the doubters, give up telling it as it really is, we the people are doomed to an Orwellian nightmare.

By Jim MacGregor & Gerry Docherty, NewDawnMagazine.com

Readers are encouraged to obtain a copy of the authors’ book Hidden History: The Secret Origins of the First World War and visit the authors’ blog at FirstWorldWarHiddenHistory. Hidden History is available from all good bookstores and online retailers.

Footnotes:

  1. E-book available at www.sacred-texts.com/sro/pc/pc03.htm
  2. E-book available at books.google.com.pe
  3. Nesta H Webster, Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, HRP edition, 254
  4. William Guy Carr, Pawns in the Game, X
  5. Ibid., X-XI
  6. Tony Page, A Brief Justification of My Intentions by Adam Weishaupt
  7. ‘The Enlightened Ones: The Illuminati and the New World Order’ by Michael Howard, New Dawn Special Issue 11
  8. Carroll Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment, IX-X
  9. Ibid., XI
  10. Ibid., IX-X
  11. YouTube.com
  12. Gerry Docherty & Jim Macgregor, Hidden History: The Secret Origins of the First World War, 17-29
  13. Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, 137
  14. Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment, X
  15. Ibid., 4-5
  16. YouTube.com
  17. D. J. Markwell, ‘Zimmern, Sir Alfred Eckhard (1879–1957)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37088
  18. Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment, X
  19. Docherty & Macgregor, Hidden History, 14
  20. Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment, 15
  21. Ibid., 101-116
  22. Ibid., 197
  23. Ibid., 84-100
  24. Ibid., 37
  25. Quigley, Tragedy and Hope, 131
  26. Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment, 15
  27. Ibid., 34
  28. Ibid, 134
  29. Ibid., 122
  30. Ibid., 133-6
  31. Ibid., 329
  32. Docherty & Macgregor, Hidden History, 75-96
  33. Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment, 38
  34. Ibid., 150
  35. Docherty & Macgregor, Hidden History, 210-224
  36. Ibid.
  37. Ibid.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment, 168
  40. G. Edward Griffin, The Creature From Jekyll Island, 110
  41. Gore Vidal, Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace

Fossil Suggests The Great Pyramids And The Sphinx Were Once Submerged Under Water

Apparently the entire landscape of the Giza Necropolis, including the Pyramids and the Sphinx, display signs of erosion. This has led researchers to suggest that certain areas of this mighty necropolis were once submerged under the sea and a newly discovered fossil makes this theory look a lot more believable. A pretty cool theory right? Well here is the story.

fossil suggests the great pyramids and the sphinx were once submerged under water

Archaeologist Sherif El Morsi, who has worked extensively on the Giza plateau for over two decades, and his colleague Antoine Gigal, were the ones who made the discovery of this controversial fossil, which backs up studies and theories that the Pyramids of Giza and the mighty Sphinx were once submerged under the sea. Sherif El Morsi and Antoine Gigal are the founders of “Giza for Humanity.”

Dr. Robert M. Schoch was one of the first researchers to really address the theory that the structures of the plateau are much older than previously thought.

In the early 90’s, Dr. Schoch suggested that the Sphinx was thousands of years older than archaeologists believed, dating back to 5000-9000 BC, this suggestion was based on erosion pattern of water found at the monuments and the surrounding rocks.

Multiple Researchers: Great Pyramid And Sphinx Are MUCH Older Than Previously Thought.the western wall of the sphinx enclosure, showing erosion consistently along its length

The western wall of the Sphinx enclosure, showing erosion consistently along its length. Courtesy and copyright of Colin Reader.

Archaeologist Sherif El Morsi has been researching and looking into the mystery ever since. During one of the photo shoots documenting patterns of erosion of several megaliths in the area, he made an even more surprising discovery that suggests that the entire area was submerged at one moment.

“During one of the documentations of the ancient coastline, I almost tripped with a block of the second level of a temple,” said Mr. Morsi in an article published on the website Gigal Research.

“To my surprise, the bump on the top surface of the block that almost tripped me was in fact a exoskeleton of a fossil of what appears to be a echinoid (sea urchin) which are marine creatures that live in relatively shallow waters.”

Sherif El Morsi suggests that the Giza plateau was once flooded by a surge. The temple site of Menkare, in particular, may have been a former lagoon when the sea level covered the Necropolis, the Sphinx, the complex of temples and other monuments of the area.

But there are several other theories which different scientists have suggested. Some researchers believe that the echinoid found on the limestone was actually exposed by erosion and the fossilized creature was part of the original limestone that had formed 30 million years ago.

But Morsi responded to these claims in a interesting way, and suggested that the creature was cemented, or petrified, in a relatively recent time, citing evidence that the creature was found placed gravitationally on the floor, that the fossil was in almost perfect condition and was located within the intertidal range of the lagoon, which is a big contrast to the small fish typically found in limestone blocks.fossil suggests the great pyramids and the sphinx were once submerged under water

Image Credit: GigalResearch.com

“We can clearly see the pristine condition and the details of the perforations of the exoskeleton, this means that the sea creature must have been petrified in recent times.” – Sherif El Morsi

According to El Morsi, the flooding, was quite significant, peaking at about 75 meters above current sea level and creating a coastline spanning to the Khafra enclosure near the Sphinx at the temple of Menkare.

El Morsi also believes that there is evidence present at the monuments and surrounding blocks that suggest the presence of tidal waves in the past and even suggest an intertidal zone of about two meters.

The Sphinx, the temple of the Sphinx, and the first 20 fields of the Great Pyramid of Giza exhibit erosion due to deep water saturation according to El Morsi.

Dating the exact time of the flood is particularly difficult for researchers since, in the last 140,000 thousand years, sea levels have fluctuated by over 120 meters.

Certainly, this is a very interesting theory and we look forward to finding out more about the possibility of the Giza Plateau being submerged under water.

Reference: Ancient-Code.com

Why Was Gold So Important To The Ancient Anunnaki?

On Earth, gold is one of the most important resources society knows of. We use it in a lot of things. It is used in electrical components and in almost everything that has to do with electricity, gold is really one of the top conductors, and its malleability and ability to transform it into wires, the ability to use it in really small forms as nanoparticles is going to make it an incredible technological resource for any sort of intelligent life form, so you would believe that an alien race with the ability to travel through space uses gold in more than one form.

why was gold so important to the ancient anunnaki?

Gold can also be used as an energy source through properties called thermoelectric effects, where it can take heat and turn it directly into electricity, this means obtaining clean and efficient energy.

Did you know that Gold reflects infrared light? Infrared is basically light you don’t see it, but in fact, interact with it in the form of heat, the radiation interacts with our molecules and that makes them vibrate faster and you’ll feel that as heat, gold also makes a good heat shield, partly because it’s quite malleable.

Better yet you can make gold very thin; it’s easy to work with; and it has great properties for reflecting and heat protection making it truly the only metal that is proven to last the test of time, we can say that Gold is indestructible.

Ancient civilizations used it thousands of years ago in figures and some of them in buildings, anything that was made out of gold – thousands of years ago still exists today.

Not only in ancient Sumeria, but ancient civilization across the globe had avery special place for gold in their society.

Sitchin theorised that “the Anunnaki” came from another planet in our solar system that has an 3,600-year elliptical orbit. The planets minerals and resources were depleting, specifically Gold.

The Anunnaki’s home planet needed gold in the atmosphere which was disappearing so they basically came to Earth to mine gold and take it back to their home planet.

According to the Ancient Alien theory, the Anunnaki genetically altered primitive mankind and created a labor force which allowed them to mine gold faster.

The Anunnaki created humans as a slave species According to Zecharia Sitchin, “the Adamu” were the first modern humans, they were created by the Anunnaki 450,000 years ago when they genetically mixed their DNA with that of prehistoric man and that way obtained a labor force which did what the Anunnaki wanted.

Gold: Why Anunnaki From Planet Nibiru Came To Earth 450,000 Years Ago.

According to Ancient Alien theorists this is something “carved in stone” and not just a made up story.

If we look at the Bible and ancient history, is it possible that Adam and Eve where the first “genetically altered humans” that the Anunnaki created?

Closer comparisons between the Hebrew Bible and the Sumerian texts reveal many similarities, not only in their stories, but also in their language. Could they have an similar origin?

One thing that we find curios is that “Adam” in Hebrew stands for “man”. “Adamu” is what the Sumerians refer to as “first man,” the Anunnaki slaves. Is there a connection here or is this a coincidence in history?

Some African cultures believe that extraterrestrial beings have been visiting the Earth for tens of thousands of years, for example the Zulu legends speak of a time when “visitors from the stars” came to excavate gold and other natural resources.

These mines were worked by slaves created by the “First People“. What we find particularly interesting is the fact that some ancient mines in Southern Africa are thought to be a hundred thousand years old and possibly even older.

So who was mining the resources, primitive man? Big question mark? Yet mainstream archaeology seems to go around these sort of questions completely…

Could this point to the existence of the Anunnaki prove Zecharia Sitchin’s books correct?

Reference: Ancient-Code.com

 Who Controlled the US Media During WW2?

A closer look at the “Big Four” of America’s media at the time should be enough to induce even the dimmest “newbie” on this subject to begin asking himself: “Were we lied to about World War II?”  

Picture
The Media Bosses Shaped the Public Mind From the Shadows

If it can be said, as I have coined and long-maintained, that Fake History is the Fake News that has passed into the rear-view mirror – then only a proper exposure of the identities and motives of Fake News patriarchs from years gone by can allow us to correct false history and thus better understand the present. And if it can also be said, as I have also coined and long-maintained, that World War II is the foundational mythology which defines the modern world – then it becomes essential to identify the original myth-makers behind the “official” narrative of “The Good War.”

First, let us note that a full six & 1/2 years before that grand and tragic history-altering event, the leaders of International Jewry formally issued a “Declaration of War” against Germany and its new Chancellor, Adolf Hitler. On March 23, 1933, 20,000 Jews protested at New York’s City Hall. Rallies and boycotts were directed against German goods. The front page of the March 24, London Daily Express carries the headline: Judea Declares War on Germany

Three days later, 40,000 hysterical Jews and other assorted Communists gathered in Madison Square Garden to protest Hitler – who hadn’t even done anything to harm anybody, except maybe a few Red terrorists who had it coming to them. The New York Daily News front page blared: “40,000 Roar Protest Here Against Hitler.”

Worldwide Jewry had fired the opening economic and propaganda shots of what, in due time, would escalate into World War II. Hitler responded to the false “atrocity” charges being made against the new Germany, stating on March 28:

“Lies and slander of positively hair-raising perversity are being launched against Germany. Horror stories of dismembered Jewish corpses, gouged out eyes and hacked off hands are circulating for the purpose of defaming the German Volk in the world for the second time, just as they had succeeded in doing once before in 1914.”

Had the Jews been some powerless minority with little influence, then their declared war against Germany could be dismissed as the inconsequential barking of a dog at the moon. But with the most powerful political weapon ever known to man — the national news media of the United States  — being mainly under their dominance, their threats against Germany were not to be taken lightly. A closer look at the “Big Four” of America’s media at the time should be enough to induce even the dimmest “newbie” on this subject to begin asking himself: “Were we lied to about Hitler and World War II?”

Let’s have a look at the main media masters of the 1930’s & 40’s.

Picture
Picture
Picture

Six 1/2  years before the actual shooting part of the war began, International Jewry had already declared the economic & propaganda war to be in effect — referring to it as “a holy war to combat the Hitlerite enemies of the Jew.”

* The New York Times // The Ochs-Sulzberger Family

Since its founding in 1851 by Republican Henry Jarvis Raymond, the mighty New York Times has been a big player in shaping public opinion. In 1896, the Times, — still experiencing financial problems due to the Panic of 1893 — took a turn to the internationalist left when it was sold on the cheap to a German-Jew named Adolph Ochs.

Ochs’ daughter was married to Arthur H Sulzberger, who became publisher when Adolph died in 1935. Sulzberger’s great grandson, Arthur G Sulzberger, is the publisher of the Times today. For 125 consecutive years and counting, America’s mighty “paper of record” has been in the hands of this same Jewish-Globalist family.

Picture
Adolph Ochs
Picture
Arthur H Sulzberger (Adolph’s son-in-law)
Picture

* NBC Radio // David Sarnoff

In 1900, David Sarnoff, who was born in a small Jewish village in Tsarist Russia, immigrated to New York City. At the age of 15, he joined the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America. By 1919, Sarnoff was General Manager of RCA radio. In 1926, Sarnoff’s RCA formed NBC, the first major broadcast network in the U.S.

Sarnoff was instrumental in building the AM broadcasting radio business which became the preeminent public radio standard for the majority of the 20th century. During World War II, he would serve under General Eisenhower as a “Communications Consultant” (psychological warfare). Sarnoff, who had no military experience, would be awarded the rank of Brigadier General.

David Sarnoff and family went on to control RCA-NBC Radio & TV for more than 60 years.

Sarnoff was an immensely powerful media giant of the 20th century.

Picture
Picture
Picture
Sarnoff of NBC was decorated with the title of “Brigadier General” for his role in psych operations in Europe.

* CBS Radio // William Paloff (Paley)

William S. Paley (Paloff) was the son of Jewish immigrants who came from the Ukraine region of the Czarist Russian Empire. In 1928, the 27-year old businessman secured majority ownership of the CBS radio network (of which his father Samuel Paloff had been part owner). During the 1930’s, Paley expanded CBS into a national powerhouse with 114 affiliate stations. During World War II, Paley, like Sarnoff of NBC, would also serve under General Eisenhower as a “colonel” in the Psychological Warfare branch of the Office of War Information.

As the King of the CBS radio (and later TV), Paley was without question, one of the most powerful figures of the 20th Century. With David Sarnoff already controlling RCA-NBC, and Paley now in control of CBS, the important pre-TV medium of radio was by then mainly under Jewish control. Like Sarnoff’s NBC, Paley’s CBS will shape what Americans believe for many years to come.

Picture
Picture
Picture
Paloff (Paley) of CBS — like Sarnoff — was granted a military title for helping to orchestrate propaganda and psychological war in Europe.

* The Washington Post // Eugene Meyer

Washington Post was one of many businesses to go bankrupt during the Great Depression – just like the New York Times had been struggling after the Panic of 1893. In June of 1933, owner Ned McLean unloaded The Post at a bankruptcy auction. The buyer was Jewish Federal Reserve Chairman Eugene Meyer.

Having just stepped down from the Federal Reserve, Meyer immediately changed The Post’s editorial policy, transforming the influential newspaper into a pro-FDR, anti-Germany, and soft-on-Stalin propaganda sheet. The Post will lose money for 20 more years, but Meyer didn’t care. He bought the Post for influence, not profit. The Post will later be handed down to his daughter, the late Katherine Meyer-Graham.

Picture
Picture
Eugene Meyers — He stepped down as Federal Reserve Chairman and bought the Post.

A CLEAN SWEEP OF MOGULS!  

Picture
Picture
Picture
Picture
On the eve of World War II, the four most powerful media sources in America were ALL under Jewish-Globalist anti-German ownership. Left-to-right: Washington Post: Meyer // CBS: Paley // NY Times: Ochs-Sulzberger // NBC: Sarnoff
Picture

AND HOLLYWOOD TOO!

A BRIEF HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN FORGERY

by Stephen Sorensen

This concatenation is anything but extensive. It was written to give a slight view into the world of forgery. This concatenated narrative of forgery is anything but extensive.

Of special interest to me is the era directly preceding that of the era of standardization, namely the 10th-15th centuries because this is the era to which the vast majority of the alleged ancient texts date. The introduction of the printing press in the mid-15th century accelerated the standardization of literary works and it was during this time that “standard” editions of classical texts were being published. The scholars of the time were aware of the magnitude of forgeries and fakes but many were still taken in by them nonetheless.

“Riddled with the inconsistency of compelling yet conflicting preconceptions … all ‘olden times’ are potentially fraudulent.”
David Lowenthal (1990)[8, p.17]

“If detecting a forgery is not easy in the first place, exposing one that has been honored as an original for hundreds of years is a far greater challenge.”
Lynn Catterson (2005)[14, p.30]

The Chronology

The history of forgery perceivably goes back almost as far as human invention does. The oldest types of forgeries or fakes in the East and the West are said to have been literary forgeries.[8, pp.23, 99] In a similar vein, the practice of art forgery is conceivably just as old as the practice of art itself.[10, p.242]

400’s-700’s

Forgeries in this time period were being produced but allegedly the output was notably small.[34, p.xxviii]

800’s-1000’s

“Creative memory was at its most creative in the ninth century, when churchmen forged unprecedented and monumental runs of entirely false charters.”
Constance Brittain Bouchard (2015)[1, p.63]

In the 900’s, forgers began producing historical forgeries to establish the histories of their religious houses. All across Europe, they were taking more of an interest in history, and were doing their best to mimic older texts.[34, pp.xxviii-xxix] In France, the deeds of Carolingian kings were being forged. In England, archival records were being largely forged.[35, p.522]

The imitation of older scripts had become commonplace in literary institutions all across Europe by around 1050.[35, p.528]

“Not only was there a campaign to recopy documents from before the Viking Age, but these documents were manipulated: interpolated, redrafted, improved.”
Julia Crick (2010)[35, p.531]

960-1127

The Northern Song Dynasty brought with it the first notable peak in Chinese art forgeries.[4, p.266]

In 1990, Anthony Grafton commented on how an estimated 66% of all documents given to the clergy prior to 1100 were fakes.[33, p.24]

1400’s-1500’s

“…medieval people … forged to an extent unsurpassed by any other age relics, legends, charters, chronicles, seals, precious stones, etc.”
Otto Kurz (1973)[3, p.77]

Hardyng

John Hardyng (1378-1465) forged historical documents in order to prove to King Henry V that the Scottish kings had always been subservient to the English crown.[11, p.16]

Alberti

Leon Batista Alberti (1404-1472) executed, according to Arthur Freeman in the words of David Marsh, “the most successful literary forgery of the early Renaissance”.[11, p.9] If David did say these words, I cannot say I agree with him. Assuming that by “successful” he meant one that served its purpose, which in the case of a forgery would be to go undetected indefinitely, I’d imagine given the scope of forgery at this time, and the little attention it’s been given, there are still early Renaissance forgeries waiting to be uncovered, and each of those has been more successful thus far than Alberti’s. Alberti also forged an ancient Roman tragicomedy that was printed about 150 years after its time by a printer who thought it to be an authentic creation from antiquity.[11, pp.9-10]

Annius

Annius of Viterbo (c.1432-1502), a Dominican and at one point the Master of the Vatican,[31, p.68] is possibly the most famous forger of the 15th century. His forgeries, which revised large swaths of history, received support and opposition by some of the greatest scholars of his time. It even gave way to more works that were based upon his original forgery. There is also a known case of him forging an inscription made to appear as though it were from the 700’s.[11, pp.11-12]

Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci (1452-1512), the man who North and South America are named after, forged travel narratives that were published around the turn of the 16th century. At least that’s what Arthur Freeman, compiler of the largest library in the world containing works about literary forgery, believes. Of Vespucci’s letters, Arthur is of the opinion that the literary forgery known by the name of “the Soderini Letter” is what lead the Americas to be named after him in 1507.[11, p.14] Others are of the opinion that the letter contains a fictional account, but that it was not written by Vespucci.[28] Also in the mix are those who believe it is a true account by Vespucci.[29]

Trithemius

Trithemius (1462-1516), a German Benedictine abbot who has since been called the “father of bibliography”, could not resist the temptation of forging a thousand years of history. He published a work in 1515 that was based upon sources which in reality did not exist.[11, p.15] It would be as if I appealed to the authoritative Book of Slack to substantiate my narrative about a millennium’s worth of names, places, and events, knowing full well the whole time that the Book of Slack does not exist.

Guevara

Antonio de Guevara (c.1481-1545) had a similar style to Trithemius. He wrote a false historical narrative and cited a non-existent Florentine manuscript. This forgery was taken to be a classical work and maintained popularity in Europe throughout the 1500’s.[11, p.15]

Erasmus

Erasmus (1466-1536), a Catholic who’s commonly held as one of the brightest northern Renaissance scholars, forged a complete work and attributed it to St. Cyprian, who lived some 1200 years prior to the time of publication.[11, p.12]

Panvinio

Onofrio Panvinio (1530-1568), an Augustinian librarian and historian, was recognized by his contemporaries as the “father of history”, and he too resorted to using forgeries. From what I understand, although not as grand as the narrative produced by Trithemius, Panvinio created literary forgeries to help substantiate his arguments about Church history.

Ligorio

Thinking back on inscriptions, they are important for historical studies and can help us understand more about the past. It is not that simple though, for they too have been forged in massive amounts. Pirro Ligorio (c.1512-1583) has been dubbed the “prince of forgers” due to forging at least nearly 3,000 inscriptions. He was a well respected individual and even took over Michelangelo’s supervisor position at St. Peter’s around 1564. The fake inscriptions aroused suspicious early on but nobody made any serious effort to expose these until the latter half of the 1700’s, about 200 years later.[13, pp.27-28]

Michelangelo

Michelangelo (1475-1564) himself has commonly been accused of forging art and antique statues. One apparent habit of his was borrowing original drawings done by old masters and copying them so well that he could return his copy and keep the originals for himself all while going undetected. As for the cases pertaining to his sculptures, I discussed one of these back in March 2020, which is by far the more popular one. Lynn Catterson pioneered the other case in 2005, and to me, it’s the more fascinating one.[14] I’ll briefly cover both of these.

The first case is known because it’s unanimously agreed upon that the controversy resulted in Michelangelo gaining a substantial amount of fame and employment. This happened in the 1490’s. There are two versions of what happened leading up to that moment. The popular account is that Michelangelo was alone responsible in creating a cupid sculpture, artificially aging it, and then selling it as an antique, hence creating a forgery. His reasoning for doing so is often said to have been financial, a struggling no-name artist trying to get a paycheck. The lesser known account is that it was the person who Michelangelo sold the statue to who was the one that attempted to pawn it off as a product of antiquity. Both scenarios are plausible given the limited information, as there are more examples of both of these things happening beyond this isolated case. This is one of the difficulties in labeling something as a forgery. Sometimes there is no intent to deceive when creating an imitative piece, and the deception only enters the scene when someone other than the creator intervenes. In the case of Michelangelo, the intervener would have knowingly introduced the deception, but in some cases misdating can happen unintentionally.

The second case is specifically about the Laocoon, discovered in 1506, but it also mentions a handful of other allegedly antique statues that were possibly forged around this time too. Lynn noted that along with Michelangelo having the motive and the means to create this, he also had the opportunity. And, in the words of Yola Schmitz (2018), “Opportunity not only makes a thief, but also a forger”.[25, p.168] That quote is good to keep in mind when exploring this field. Lynn covered the case in detail and I suggest you read that as a starting point to learn more than what I’ve shared here.

Otto Kurz mentioned that “The forgers of classical antiquities in the Renaissance period were no narrow specialists”.[3, p.79] He went on to say that out of all the fields in which they forged antiquities, that of forging busts of Roman emperors was the largest. This field of scholarship does appear to me to be, at the least, poorly accessible, scarcely represented, and seriously underdeveloped. And as I often note, the field dealing with art forgery is sizably larger than that dealing with literary forgery.

The Trio

I want to take a moment to focus on the Fasti Capitolini, which was discovered in 1564 and has since held a reputation as one of the fundamental sources for our modern conception of Roman chronology. The reason for its importance is because it contains a list of Roman consuls, who were chairmen of the Roman senate who had control over the Roman army and had the greatest amount of legal power, and also a list of other important figures. Consuls have been one of the main sources used for Roman chronology.

The dating of it is typically restricted to the reign of Augustus in the 1st centuries BCE and CE. There is a notable amount of scholarship trying to make sense of its place in history,[16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24] and while talk of 1st century BCE conspiracy has been discussed at some length, I have never seen the idea that it could be a product of the 16th century proposed. The reason why I’m more suspicious about this find in particular is that it was discovered by none other than both the prince of forgers and the father of history, Pirro Ligorio and Onofrio Panvinio. Additionally, the discovery was supervised by Michelangelo. I think it’d be interesting to look upon it with today’s methods of investigation.

Parker

Matthew Parker (1504-1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury and patron to the production of classical forgeries. He’s also been accused of conjuring a fictional characters and acting as though it was a real person. He had writers, drawers, painters, cutters, limners, and bookbinders all within his budget. He also offered his counterfeiting services to other people.[30] Laurence Nowell (1530-c.1570), an associate of Parker and the best Anglo-Saxon scholar of his day, was a forger too.[11, p.17]

The state of English history at this time was dismal, as was noted by Parker himself. He wanted to establish English history as being distinct from the domineering Catholic history. He accused the Catholics of mutilating and perverting English history, leaving it corrupted, incomplete, altered, and in some places altogether erased.[30]

Ceccarelli

Alfonso Ceccarelli (1532-1583) was a physician and historian who was eventually executed for his forgeries. His craft was forged chronicles, genealogies, and legal documents which he then sold to the various people who requested them.[11, p.13], [26, p.235]

Other

Due to the number of forged coins that had made their way into circulation, many 15th and 16th century books on numismatics were required to include a chapter on forgeries.[3, p.78]

c.1550-1644

The Late Ming Dynasty brought with it the second major spike in Chinese art forgeries.[4, p.266] One of the causes of this second great age of forgery was that the desire to possess antiques was rapidly increasing among collectors.[5, p.76], [8, p.99] In the literary world during this time, Chinese colophons were often being forged.[6, p.50] The situation pertaining to colophons was not much better in the West.[7]

1600’s-1700’s

Higuera

Jerónimo Román de La Higuera (1538-1611) was a Spanish Jesuit who forged a hagiographical work known as the Chronicon,[11, p.21] later known as the False Chronicles. To help with their reputation, he gave them a fake provenance by claiming that he received the chronicles from the Benedictine abbey of Fulda, a popular abbey amongst Renaissance scholars for authentic manuscripts. He incorporated prominent issues of the day into these texts, which in the long-run really helped secure their popularity, as they were notably influential from the then until near the end of the 1800’s.[32, pp.1-2]

Scaliger

Born two years after Higuera was Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609), a man who in his own time was considered the most learned man of Europe and who has since gained a reputation as the father of chronology. He created a fictional list of Olympiads, which are the way in which Greek years are counted and dated. It was presented in such a way that many thought it to be an authentic source and it wasn’t until 1852 that it was officially laid to rest as fictional. Another deceptive work of his was a recreation of an ancient lost text of which he never fully explained the origins, leaving it to his readers to figure out.[11, p.20]

Carrera

Pietro Carrera (1573-1647) was an Italian priest who forged 65 letters of Diodorus Siculus, who was a historian from the first century BCE. He also forged an encomium attributed to the C3rd CE St. Agatha.[11, p.22]

Mentel

Jacques Mentel (1597-1671) attempted to prove his supposed ancestor had invented the printing press before Gutenberg. To do this, he fabricated literary evidence and thereby became a forger. He published this in 1650.[11, p.21]

Vignier

Jerome Vignier (1606-1661) was a French priest who published a work in 1649 that contained ecclesiastical, genealogical, and historical forgeries.[11, p.20] I haven’t read much about this one, but an English translations of the title is “The true origin of the very illustrious houses of Alsace, Lorraine, Austria, Baden, and many others“, so I figure it has to do with fabricating histories for these various houses.

Inghirami

Curzio Inghirami (1614-1655) created a literary forgery revealed through an archeological forgery. He buried numerous fragments forged to appear Etruscan and which relayed the recently fabricated tale of Etruria’s destruction by Roman forces in 60 BCE.

Bertram

Charles Julius Bertram (1723-1765) was called “the cleverest and most successful literary imposter of modern times” for his forged account of Roman Britain, published in 1757. Along with it came a forged mapped that depicted imaginary Roman stations and roads.

1800’s-1900’s

The systematic study of forgery began to be established. Previous to this, historians mainly focused on the topic anecdotally.[2, pp.14-15] The systematic approach began by flourishing in fields now commonly referred to collectively as the historical auxiliary sciences, and this largely took place within German scholarship.

Vrain-Lucas

Denis Vrain-Lucas (1818-1882) was called the prince of forgers.

Simonides

Constantine Simonides (1820-1890) allegedly forged the codex Sinaiticus. He was also known for other forgeries.

c.1890’s-c.1940’s

The Late Qing-early Republican era brought with it the third and final massive wave of art forgeries being produced. Over the course of about 30 years starting in 1920, a single counterfeiter was estimated to have sold some 2,000 counterfeit scrolls.[4, p.266]

Forgery was alive and well in the United States at this time too. In 1913, Richard Gottheil commented on the recent spike in the number of archaeological frauds and called the US a “dumping-ground for forgeries of many kinds”.[9, p.306]

References:

[1] – Bouchard, Constance Brittain. Rewriting Saints and Ancestors: Memory and Forgetting in France, 500-1200. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zw7bp. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[2] – COHEN, PAULA MARANTZ. “The Meanings of Forgery.” Southwest Review, vol. 97, no. 1, 2012, pp. 12–25., www.jstor.org/stable/43821007. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[3] – KURZ, OTTO. “EARLY ART FORGERIES: FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.” Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. 121, no. 5198, 1973, pp. 74–90. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/41371017. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[4] – Laing, Ellen Johnston. “‘Suzhou Pian’ and Other Dubious Paintings in the Received ‘Oeuvre’ of Qiu Ying.” Artibus Asiae, vol. 59, no. 3/4, 2000, pp. 265–295. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/3249881. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[5] – O’Brien, David. “Art in an Expanded Field: Taste and Class in Chinese Visual Culture.” The Journal of American-East Asian Relations, vol. 4, no. 1, 1995, pp. 73–81. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/23612584. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[6] – Ming-Sun Poon. “The Printer’s Colophon in Sung China, 960-1279.” The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, vol. 43, no. 1, 1973, pp. 39–52. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/4306229. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[7] – Bühler, Curt F. “False Information in the Colophons of Incunabula.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 114, no. 5, 1970, pp. 398–406. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/985806. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[8] – Jones, Mark, et al. Fake? The Art of Deception. First Edition, University of California Press, 1990. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_LaUnOztbkP4C/mode/2up. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[9] – Gottheil, Richard. “Two Forged Antiques.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 33, 1913, pp. 306–312. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/592837. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[10] – Thomas P. F. Hoving. “The Game of Duplicity.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 6, 1968, pp. 241–246. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/3258621. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[11] – Freeman, Arthur. Bibliotheca Fictiva. Bernard Quaritch, 2014. Accessed 19 May 2021.

[12] – Ligota, Christopher R. “Annius of Viterbo and Historical Method.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. 50, 1987, pp. 44–56. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/751317. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[13] – Abbott, Frank Frost. “Some Spurious Inscriptions and Their Authors.” Classical Philology, vol. 3, no. 1, 1908, pp. 22–30. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/262031. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[14] – Catterson, Lynn. “Michelangelo’s ‘Laocoön?”.” Artibus Et Historiae, vol. 26, no. 52, 2005, pp. 29–56. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/20067096. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[15] – Bauer, Stefan. The Invention of Papal History: Onofrio Panvinio between Renaissance and Catholic Reform (Oxford-Warburg Studies). Oxford University Press, 2020.

[16] – Taylor, Lily Ross. “The Date of the Capitoline Fasti.” Classical Philology, vol. 41, no. 1, 1946, pp. 1–11. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/267529. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[17] – Taylor, Lily Ross. “Degrassis’ Edition of the Consular and Triumphal Fasti.” Classical Philology, vol. 45, no. 2, 1950, pp. 84–95. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/266435. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[18] – Christopher J. Simpson. “The Original Site of the ‘Fasti Capitolini.’” Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 42, no. 1, 1993, pp. 61–81. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/4436271. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[19] – Bodel, John. “Chronology and Succession 1: ‘Fasti Capitolini’ Fr. XXXIId, the Sicilian ‘Fasti,” and the Suffect Consuls of 36 BC.” Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik, vol. 96, 1993, pp. 259–266. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/20188909. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[20] – Jordan, Bradley. “The ‘Fasti Consulares Capitolini’ and Caesar’s ‘Magistri Equitum Designati.’” Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik, vol. 196, 2015, pp. 231–239., www.jstor.org/stable/43909956. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[21] – Adams, F. W. “Some Observations on the Consular Fasti in the Early Empire.” American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 55, no. 3, 1951, pp. 239–241. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/500973. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[22] – Taylor, Lily Ross, and T. Robert S. Broughton. “The Order of the Consuls’ Names in Official Republican Lists.” Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 17, no. 2, 1968, pp. 166–172. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/4435023. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[23] – Swan, Michael. “The Consular Fasti of 23 B. C. and the Conspiracy of Varro Murena.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. 71, 1967, pp. 235–247. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/310766. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[24] – Russell, Amy. “The Augustan Senate and the Reconfiguration of Time on the Fasti Capitolini.” Augustus and the Destruction of History: The Politics of the Past in Early Imperial Rome, edited by INGO GILDENHARD et al., vol. 41, Cambridge Philological Society, Oxford, 2019, pp. 157–186. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv10kmc9n.13. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[25] – Schmitz, Yola. “Faked Translations: James Macpherson’s Ossianic Poetry.” Faking, Forging, Counterfeiting: Discredited Practices at the Margins of Mimesis, edited by Yola Schmitz et al., Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld, 2018, pp. 167–180. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv1wxr9t.13. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[26] – Siraisi, Nancy G. “History, Antiquarianism, and Medicine: The Case of Girolamo Mercuriale.” Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 64, no. 2, 2003, pp. 231–251. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/3654127. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[27] – Roukema, E. “The Mythical ‘First Voyage’ of the ‘Soderini Letter.’” Imago Mundi, vol. 16, 1962, pp. 70–75. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/1150303. Accessed 20 May 2021.

[28] – Roukema, E. “The Mythical ‘First Voyage’ of the ‘Soderini Letter.’” Imago Mundi, vol. 16, 1962, pp. 70–75. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/1150303. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[29] – Davies, A. “The ‘First’ Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci in 1497-8.” The Geographical Journal, vol. 118, no. 3, 1952, pp. 331–337. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/1790319. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[30] – Robinson, Benedict Scott. “‘Darke Speech’: Matthew Parker and the Reforming of History.” The Sixteenth Century Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, 1998, pp. 1061–1083. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/2543358. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[31] – Farrer, J. A. (1907). Literary Forgeries. Longmans, Green, and Co. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Literary_Forgeries/_QCFAAAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[32] – Olds, Katrina B. “The ‘False Chronicles,” Cardinal Baronio, and Sacred History in Counter-Reformation Spain.” The Catholic Historical Review, vol. 100, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1–26., www.jstor.org/stable/43898529. Accessed 21 May 2021.

[33] – Grafton, Anthony, and Ann Blair. Forgers and Critics, New Edition: Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship. New, Princeton University Press, 2019. Accessed 21 Jun. 2021.

[34] – Roach, Levi. Forgery and Memory at the End of the First Millennium. Princeton University Press, 2021. Accessed 6 Jul. 2021.

[35] – Crick, J. (2010). Insular History? Forgery and the English Past in the Tenth Century. England and the Continent in the Tenth Century, 515–544. doi:10.1484/m.sem-eb.3.4713. Accessed 6 Jul. 2021.

According To Numerous Ancient Accounts, There Was A Time When The Moon Did Not Exist In The Sky

In ancient writings and traditions one can find proof of a time when the moon did not exist. Democretus and Anaxagoras mention that there was a time when no moon could be seen in the night skies. In describing the history of the Greek region of Arcadia, Aristotle writes that the Pelasgians lived in the area since very old times; at a time when the moon did not exist.

forbidden history there was a time when the moon did not exist in the sky

Apollonios from Rhodes mentions something similar; he talks about a time when not all of the celestial objects existed in the sky; before the time of Deucalion’s and Pyrra’s generation (before the cataclysm); when the moon did not exist and the only humans that existed were the Pelasgians living on the mountains of Arcadia (region in Greece). These inhabitants of Arcadia where also known as Proselenes (meaning “those that were before moon” in Greek).

In Plutarch’s work “Morals” we find the following: “There were Arcadians of Evander’s following, the so-called pre-Lunar people.”

Similarly, Ovid wrote: “The Arcadians are said to have possessed their land before the birth of Zeus, and the folk is older than the Moon.”

Stephanus of Byzantium wrote: “Arcadians and females, both exist before the moon”. Hippolytus refers to a legend that “Arcadia brought forth Pelasgus, of greater antiquity than the moon.”

Lukianos in his Astrology says that “the Arcadians affirm in their folly that they are older than the moon”.

Evidence has also been found in other parts of the world. In Bolivia symbols on the wall of the courtyard of Kalasasaya (built in 13,000 BC) provide evidence that the moon came into orbit around the Earth at a specific moment in time thousands of years ago, long before what mainstream historians refer to as recorded history. Moreover the calendar gate in the same site provides evidence that a smaller satellite once rotated around the Earth.

The oral traditions of Colombian Indians of the Bogota highlands in the eastern Corldilleras of Colombia refer to a time before the moon.

“In the earliest times, when the moon was not yet in the heavens,” say the tribesmen of Chibchas (1).

Africa also provides its own evidence. According to Zulu legend, the moon was brought hundreds of generations ago by two brothers of alien form, Wowane and Mpanku.

What does all this mean?

The ancient memory of an Earth inhabited by humans without a moon has passed from generations to generations forming the traditions of numerous civilizations. How did the moon get there?

Reference: 1. A. von Humboldt, Vues des Cordilléres (1816), English transl.: Researches Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of America, (1814), vol. I, p. 87; cf. H. Fischer,In mondener Welt (1930), p. 145

Source: HistoryDisclosure.com

The Earth Without The Moon

The period when the Earth was Moonless is probably the most remote recollection of mankind. Democritus and Anaxagoras taught that there was a time when the Earth was without the Moon.(1) Aristotle wrote that Arcadia in Greece, before being inhabited by the Hellenes, had a population of Pelasgians, and that these aborigines occupied the land already before there was a moon in the sky above the Earth; for this reason they were called Proselenes.(2)

Apollonius of Rhodes mentioned the time “when not all the orbs were yet in the heavens, before the Danai and Deukalion races came into existence, and only the Arcadians lived, of whom it is said that they dwelt on mountains and fed on acorns, before there was a moon.” (3)

Plutarch wrote in The Roman Questions: “There were Arcadians of Evander’s following, the so-called pre-Lunar people.”(4) Similarly wrote Ovid: “The Arcadians are said to have possessed their land before the birth of Jove, and the folk is older than the Moon.” (5) Hippolytus refers to a legend that “Arcadia brought forth Pelasgus, of greater antiquity than the moon.”(6) Lucian in his Astrology says that “the Arcadians affirm in their folly that they are older than the moon.”(7)

Censorinus also alludes to the time in the past when there was no moon in the sky.(8)

Some allusions to the time before there was a Moon may be found also in the Scriptures. In Job 25:5 the grandeur of the Lord who “Makes peace in the heights” is praised and the time is mentioned “before [there was] a moon and it did not shine.” Also in Psalm 72:5 it is said: “Thou wast feared since [the time of] the sun and before [the time of] the moon, a generation of generations.” A “generation of generations” means a very long time. Of course, it is of no use to counter this psalm with the myth of the first chapter of Genesis, a tale brought down from exotic and later sources.

The memory of a world without a moon lives in oral tradition among the Indians. The Indians of the Bogota highlands in the eastern Cordilleras of Colombia relate some of their tribal reminiscences to the time before there was a moon. “In the earliest times, when the moon was not yet in the heavens,” say the tribesmen of Chibchas.(9)

There are currently three theories of the origin of the moon:

1) The Moon originated at the same time as the Earth, being formed substantially from the same material, aggregating and solidifying.

2) The Moon was formed not in the vicinity of the Earth, but in a different part of the solar system, and was later captured by the Earth.

3) The Moon was originally a portion of the terrestrial crust and was torn out, leaving behind the bed of the Pacific.

All three theories claim the presence of the Moon on an orbit around the Earth for billions of years. Mythology may supply each of these views with some support (Genesis I for the first view; the birth of Aphrodite from the sea for the third view; Aphrodite’s origin in the disruption of Uranus, and also the violence of Sin—the Babylonian Moon—seems to support the second view).

Since mankind on both sides of the Atlantic preserved the memory of a time when the Earth was without the Moon, the first hypothesis, namely, of the Moon originating simultaneously with the Earth and in its vicinity, is to be excluded, leaving the other two hypotheses to compete between themselves.

We have seen that the traditions of diverse peoples offer corroborative testimony to the effect that in a very early age, but still in the memory of mankind, no moon accompanied the Earth.(10) Since human beings already peopled the Earth, it is improbable that the Moon sprang from it: there must have existed a solid lithosphere, not a liquid earth. Thus while I do not claim to know the origin of the Moon, I find it more probable that the Moon was captured by the Earth. Such an event would have occurred as a catastrophe.(11) If the Moon’s formation took place away from the Earth,(12) its composition may be quite different.

There is no evidence to suggest whether the Moon was a planet, a satellite of another planet, or a comet at the time of its capture by the Earth. Whatever atmosphere it may have had(13) was pulled away by the Earth, by other contacting bodies, or dissipated in some other way.

Since the time the Moon began to accompany the Earth, it underwent the influence of contacts with comets and planets that passed near the Earth in subsequent ages. The mass of the Moon being less than that of the Earth, the Moon must have suffered greater disturbances in cosmic contacts. During these contacts the Moon was not carried away: this is due to the fact that no body more powerful than the Earth came sufficiently close to the Moon to take it away from the Earth for good; but in the contacts that took place the Moon was removed repeatedly from one orbit to another.

The variations in the position of the Moon can be read in the variations in the length of the month. The length of the month repeatedly changed in subseqent catastrophic events—and for this there exists a large amount of supporting evidence. In these later occurrences the Moon played a passive role, and Zeus in the Iliad advised it (Aphrodite) to stay out of the battle in which Athene and Ares (Venus and Mars) were the main contestants.

References:

  1. Hippolytus, Refutatio Omnium Haeresium V. ii.
  2. Aristotle, fr. 591 (ed. V. Rose [Teubner:Tuebingen, 1886] ). Cf. Pauly’s Realencyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft,article “Mond” ; H. Roscher, Lexicon d. griech. und roemisch. Mythologie, article “Proselenes.”
  3. Argonautica IV.264.
  4. Plutarch, Moralia, transl. by F. C. Babbit, sect. 76.
  5. Fasti, transl. by Sir J. Frazer, II. 290.
  6. Refutatio Omnium Haeresium V. ii.
  7. Lucian, Astrology, transl. by A. M. Harmon (1936), p. 367, par. 26.
  8. Liber de die natali 19; also scholium on Aristophanes’ Clouds, line 398.
  9. A. von Humboldt, Vues des Cordillères (1816), English transl.: Researches Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of America, (1814), vol. I, p. 87; cf. H. Fischer, In mondener Welt (1930), p. 145.
  10. [In addition to the sources cited above, cf. The Nihongi Chronicles of Japan (I.ii, in Transactions and Proceedings of the Japanese Society,vol. I [1896]) which recount how “Heaven and Earth . . . produced the Moon-god.” The Kalevala of the Finns recalls a time “when the Moon was placed in orbit.” (Rune III.35)]
  11. [Cf. the effects of such an event on the Earth’s rotation calculated by H. Gerstenkorn in Zeitschrift fuer Astrophysik, 36 (1955), p. 245; cf. idem, in Mantles of the Earth and the Terrestrial Planets, S. K. Runcorn ed., (New York, 1967); also idem in Icarus 9 (1968), p. 394.]
  12. [Cf. H. Alfven and G. Arrhenius, “Two Alternatives for the History of the Moon,” Science 165 (1969), 11ff.; S. F. Singer and L. W. Banderman, “Where was the Moon Formed?” Science 170 (1970), 438-439: “ . . . The moon was formed independently of the earth and later captured, presumably by a three-body interaction, and these events were followed by the dissipation of the excess energy through tidal friction in a close encounter.” More recently, a study of lunar paleotides has shown that “the Moon could not have been formed in orbit around the Earth” (A. J. Anderson, “Lunar Paleotides and the Origin of the Earth-Moon System,” The Moon and the Planets, 19 [1978], 409-417). Because of a certain degree of instability in the Sun-Earth-Moon system, “the planetary origin and capture of the Moon by the Earth becomes a strong dynamic possibility.” (V. Szebehely and R. McKenzie, “Stability of the Sun-Earth-Moon System,” The Astronomical Journal 82 (1977), 303ff.].
  13. [Cf. Yu. B. Chernyak, “On Recent Lunar Atmosphere,” Nature, 273 (15 June, 1978), pp. 497ff. The author found “strong theoretical evidence of a considerable atmosphere on the Moon during the greater part of its history.”]

Source: Varchive.org

If You Live In Taiwan, It’s Time To Worry

Taiwan needs to worry about American reliability. Unlike Afghanistan, where the United States had committed its forces for two decades, Taiwan has no U.S. forces and no assurance that the United States will come to their defense if attacked by China.

The United States has a bad habit of walking out on its allies and friends. The list is long. It includes Vietnam and Cambodia, Iraq and Afghanistan, and Iran. In all of those cases, one way or another, the United States, for its own reasons, took a hike.

Obama pulled U.S. troops from Iraq, opening the door to Iran. While the United States has a few thousand soldiers still in Iraq in training and advisory capacities, they’re under siege and it’s unlikely the United States will protect them.

In fact, President Joe Biden has said the United States will end combat missions in Iraq by the end of 2021. Unless U.S. troops are pulled out in the middle of the night, as they were in Afghanistan, they’ll quite possibly have to shoot themselves out while exiting.

Carter let Iran collapse into chaos and refused to support the Shah. Prior to that time, the United States had massively supplied Iran with weapons and military advisors. But when the Shah asked for help, he got none. The collapse of the Shah’s regime, without U.S. backing, was a foregone conclusion.

Nixon let Vietnam and Cambodia go down the drain, trying to cover their tracks with the so-called Paris Peace Accords that required U.S. troops’ withdrawal from Vietnam, a key demand of North Vietnam. South Vietnam hung on for a while, but without U.S. airpower and support, they couldn’t win against a North Vietnamese army supported by Russia and China.

The debacle in Cambodia involved the mass murder of perhaps 2 million Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge over a three-year period. Washington could have prevented it but didn’t. The United States was fully aware of what the Khmer Rouge was doing as the flow of starved and brutalized victims flowed into Phnom Penh as the impending collapse gained momentum. (The author was in Cambodia in the last two weeks of the war.)

The United States also let mass murder happen elsewhere, although the United States wasn’t under any specific obligation to intervene. The Rwanda genocide in 1994 took the lives of 1.1 million people in that country.

The U.N. had a peace-keeping mission there (UNAMIR), but because of restrictive rules of engagement and logistical limitations, those forces failed to stop the genocide. Its head, a Canadian named Romeo Dallaire, afterward tried to commit suicide four times.

No one (yet) is saying there’s anything comparable happening in Afghanistan, but the future there looks bleak. Already, there are numerous reports of executions of Afghan army soldiers and many murders.

In Taiwan, a prosperous middle-class, Asian country, there’s a palpable fear of China. The United States is obligated to supply Taiwan with defense materials under the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979.

That act provides for the United States to supply Taiwan with “arms of a defensive character” and “to maintain the capacity of the United States to resist any resort to force or other forms of coercion that would jeopardize the security, or the social or economic system, of the people on Taiwan.”

In 1979, the United States canceled the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty with Taiwan. That treaty required that if either party was attacked, the other would come to its assistance with military aid. The language of the Taiwan Relations Act doesn’t reflect this key mutual defense provision and only requires the United States to “maintain the capacity” to resist any resort to force.

In truth, the United States faces many issues in “maintaining the capacity” to resist any resort to force. China has been building up its conventional and military forces and has been harassing Taiwan and Japan increasingly by using its air and naval power.

The U.S. response to the stepped-up tempo of China’s aggressive actions has been less than stellar. U.S. Navy ships have conducted freedom of navigation exercises in the South China Sea and in the Taiwan Strait, but those exercises have been few and far between. Moreover, there’s already pushback about freedom of navigation exercises, mainly because there’s fear it’ll get the United States into a war with China.

But the United States has also pulled its long-range bombers (B-52s and B-1s) out of Guam and has taken few steps to reinforce U.S. forces in Japan and Okinawa. The single U.S. aircraft carrier in the Pacific, the USS Ronald Reagan, has been redeployed to the Indian Ocean, removing a formidable capability from the area. These measures, especially Guam and the redeployment of the Reagan, represent dangerous Biden administration concessions to China.

No one in the administration has explained why the United States is reducing its profile in East Asia while the threat from China is rising.

A few voices have been raised in Congress, even by Democrats who are alarmed. One of them is Rep. Elaine Luria (D-Va.), vice chairperson of the House Armed Services Committee-Sea Power subcommittee. Luria called the redeployment of the Ronald Reagan carrier “one of the biggest mistakes we have made in maybe my lifetime, strategically.”

Luria served two decades in the Navy, retiring at the rank of commander. She served at sea on six ships as a nuclear-trained surface warfare officer, deployed to the Middle East and Western Pacific, and culminated her Navy career by commanding a combat-ready unit of 400 sailors.

Even before the Afghanistan debacle, Japanese leaders reflected growing alarm about Chinese threats to Taiwan. Japan’s Deputy Prime Minister Taro Aso asserted that a Chinese invasion would be an “existential threat (to Japan) since Okinawa could be next.”

The primary issue is U.S. reliability. South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan all depend directly on the United States. Without its support, none of them can avoid war—in Korea, the threat from Pyongyang and in Japan and Taiwan, the threat from Beijing.

Neither Taiwan nor Japan can defend against China by themselves. South Korea is different only in the sense that it has a formidable army and a lot of firepower. But in any war, South Korea would pay a very high price.

The United States has troops in Japan and on Okinawa and in South Korea. Will they fight or leave? The United States has mutual defense treaties with both countries, unlike the case of Taiwan, where only the Taiwan Relations Act offers some help to Taiwan.

Will the United States stay the course in the Pacific?

Stability in the Pacific depends on strong and visible U.S. resolve and U.S.-led deterrence. That seems to be at risk right now.

The signals coming from Washington are anything but positive.

Scientists: Geological Evidence Shows The Sphinx Could Be 800,000 Years Old

One of the most mysterious and enigmatic monuments on the surface of the planet is without a doubt the Great Sphinx at the Giza plateau in Egypt. It is an ancient construction that has baffled researchers ever since its discovery and until today, no one has been able to accurately date the Sphinx, since there are no written records or mentions in the past about it.

Now, two Ukrainian researchers have proposed a new provocative theory where the two scientists propose that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is around 800,000 years old. A revolutionary theory that is backed up by science.

The study was presented at the International Conference of Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy held in Sofia titled: GEOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM OF DATING THE GREAT EGYPTIAN SPHINX CONSTRUCTION.

The authors of this paper are scientists Manichev Vjacheslav I. (Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and Alexander G. Parkhomenko (Institute of Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).

The starting point of these two experts is the paradigm shift initiated by West and Schoch, a ‘debate’ intended to overcome the orthodox view of Egyptology referring to the possible remote origins of the Egyptian civilization and, on the other, physical evidence of water erosion present at the monuments of the Giza Plateau.

According to Manichev and Parkhomenko:

“The problem of dating the Great Egyptian Sphinx construction is still valid, despite of the long-term history of its research. Geological approach in connection to other scientific-natural methods permits to answer the question about the relative age of the Sphinx. The conducted visual investigation of the Sphinx allowed the conclusion about the important role of water from large water bodies which partially flooded the monument with formation of wave-cut hollows on its vertical walls.”

“The morphology of these formations has an analogy with similar such hollows formed by the sea in the coastal zones. Genetic resemblance of the compared erosion forms and the geological structure and petrographic composition of sedimentary rock complexes lead to a conclusion that the decisive factor of destruction of the historic monument is the wave energy rather than sand abrasion in Eolian process.

“Voluminous geological literature confirms the fact of existence of long-living fresh-water lakes in various periods of the Quaternary from the Lower Pleistocene to the Holocene. These lakes were distributed in the territories adjacent to the Nile. The absolute mark of the upper large erosion hollow of the Sphinx corresponds to the level of water surface which took place in the Early Pleistocene. The Great Egyptian Sphinx had already stood on the Giza Plateau by that geological (historical) time.”

A strong argument was made by Ukrainian scientists in regards of the Sphinx, arguments based upon geological studies which support Schoch’s view regarding the Sphinx and its age.

Manichev and Parkhomenko focus on the deteriorated aspect of the body of the Sphinx, leaving aside the erosive features where the Sphinx is located, which had been studied previously by Schoch. Ukrainian scholars focused on the undulating terrain of the Sphinx which displays the mysterious pattern.

Mainstream scientists offer explanations for this sharp feature and state that it is based on the abrasive effect of the wind and sand, the undulations were formed because the harder layers of rock are better at withstanding the erosions while the softer layers would have been more affected, forming voids.

However, as noted Manichev and Parkhomenko, this argument does not explain why the front of the head of the Sphinx lacks such features.

In regards to the argument made by Schoch about the heavy rain period which occurred around 13,000 BC, the Ukrainian scientists recognized Schoch hypothesis partially suggesting that the erosive features of the Sphinx go further back than 13.000 BC.

Manichev and Parkhomenko argue is that the mountainous and coastal areas of the Caucasus and Crimea, which they know well, have a type of wind erosion that differs morphologically to the erosive features noted on the Sphinx.

Essentially, they argue that such wind erosion has a very soft effect, regardless of the geological composition of the rocks.the western wall of the sphinx enclosure, showing erosion consistently along its length

The western wall of the Sphinx enclosure, showing erosion consistently along its length. Courtesy and copyright of Colin Reader.

“In our geological field expeditions in different mountains and littoral zones of the Crimea and Caucasus we could often observe the forms of Eolian weathering which morphology differs considerably from the weathering taking place on the GES. Most natural forms of weathering are of smoothed character, independent of lithological composition of the rocks.”

They continue further and explain:

“Our personal experience in scientific investigation of geology of the sea coasts gives reasons to draw an analogy with the GES and to suggest another mechanism of its destruction. Specialists-geologists, who work in the field of sea-coast geomorphology, know such forms of relief as wave-cut hollows (Morskaya Geomorfologiya, 1980). They can be one- and multi-storey. They are arranged horizontally to the sea water surface, if the coast makes a vertical wall (cliff).

“Especially deep wave-cut hollows are formed in precipitous cliffs built by the strata of carbonaceous rocks. Such forms of the coast relief are well-known and studied in detail on the Black-Sea coast of the Caucasus and Crimea (Popov, 1953; Zenkovich, 1960). General model of formation of the wave-cut hollows in the rocks of the Caucasian flysch is given by Popov (1953, 162; Fig. 3). In dynamics of the process of wave-cut hollows formation one can notice such a characteristic feature that the wave energy is directed to the rock stratum at the level of water surface. Besides, both saline and fresh water can dissolve the rocks.”

Manichev and Parkhomenko propose a new natural mechanism that may explain the undulations and mysterious features of the Sphinx. This mechanism is the impact of waves on the rocks of the coast.

Basically, this could produce, in a period of thousands of years the formation of one or more layers of ripples, a fact that is clearly visible, for example, on the shores of the Black Sea. This process, which acts horizontally (that is, when the waves hit the rock up to the surface), will produce a wear or dissolution of the rock.

The fact is that the observation of these cavities in the Great Sphinx made the Ukranian scientists think that this great monument could have been affected by above said process in the context of immersion in large bodies of water, not the regular flooding of the Nile.

Manichev and Parkhomenko suggest that the geological composition of the body of the Sphinx is a sequence of layers composed of limestone with small interlayers of clays.

Manichev and Parkhomenko explain that these rocks possess different degree of resistance to the water effect and say that if the hollows formation were due to sand abrasion only, the hollows had to correspond to the strata of a certain lithological composition.

They suggest that the Great Sphinx hollows are formed in fact within several strata, or occupy some part of the stratum of homogeneous composition.the back of the great sphinx of egypt

the back of the great sphinx of egypt

Manichev and Parkhomenko firmly believe that the Sphinx had to be submerged for a long time under water and, to support this hypothesis, they point towards existing literature of geological studies of the Giza Plateau.

According to these studies at the end of the Pliocene geologic period (between 5.2 and 1.6 million years ago), sea water entered the Nile valley and gradually creating flooding in the area. This led to formation of lacustrine deposits which are at the mark of 180 m above the present level of the Mediterranean Sea.

According to Manichev and Parkhomenko, it is the sea level during the Calabrian phase which is the closest to the present mark with the highest GES hollow at its level. High level of sea water also caused the Nile overflowing and created long-living water-bodies. As to time it corresponds to 800000 years.

What we have here is evidence which contradicts the conventional theory of deterioration caused by Sand and Water, a theory already criticized by West and Schoch, who recalled that during many centuries, the body of the Sphinx was buried by the sands of the desert, so Wind and Sand erosion would not have done any damage to the enigmatic Sphinx.

However, where Schoch clearly saw the action of streams of water caused by continuous rains, Ukrainian geologists see the effect of erosion caused by the direct contact of the waters of the lakes formed in the Pleistocene on the body Sphinx. This means that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is one of the oldest monuments on the surface of the Earth, pushing back drastically the origin of mankind and civilization.

Some might say that the theory proposed by Manichev and Parkhomenko is very extreme because it places the Great Sphinx in an era where there were no humans, according to currently accepted evolutionary patterns.

Furthermore, as it has been demonstrated, the two megalithic temples, located adjacent to the Great Sphinx were built by the same stone which means that the new dating of the Sphinx drags these monuments with the Sphinx back 800,000 years.

In other words, this means that ancient civilizations inhabited our planet much longer than mainstream scientists are willing to accept.

Source: Ancient-Code.com / Reference: Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy (Eds. R. I. Kostov, B. Gaydarska, M. Gurova). 2008. Proceedings of the International Conference, 29-30 October 2008 Sofia, Publishing House “St. Ivan Rilski”, Sofia, 308-311.

The Forbidden Land Of Agartha, And The Mythical Inner Earth

According to Giannini and Palmer, Vice Admiral Byrd announced on February of 1947, just before venturing into a 2,750 km journey across the North Pole, “I’d like to see the land beyond the Pole. That area beyond the Pole is the center of the Great Enigma.”

land of agartha

According to some, it is believed that during Vice Admiral Byrd’s flight over the North Pole that took place in 1947, he said via radio that beneath was not snow but huge areas of land with mountains, forests and vegetation, huge lakes and rivers with animals that resembled mammoths.

Before his death, had said there existed a land beyond the Pole that was “an enchanted continent in the sky, a permanent mystery of Earth.” That land, according to other theories, was the legendary Rainbow City, home to a fabulous lost civilization.

The possibility that the earth is hollow, and that it can be accessed through the North and South poles, and that secret civilizations flourish within it, has spurred the imagination of people through centuries. Evidence of this we find in the history of countless ancient civilizations.

The Babylonian hero Gilgamesh visited his ancestor Utnapishtim in the bowels of the earth; in Greek mythology, Orpheus tries to rescue Eurydice from the underground hell; it was said that the Pharaohs of Egypt communicated with the underworld, which could be accessed via secret tunnels hidden in the pyramids; and Buddhists believed (and still believe) that millions of people live in Agharta, an underground paradise ruled by the king of the world.

So just when you think that these theories could be nothing more than excessive imaginations, you actually come across evidence in ancient history pointing towards the possibility of a world inside Earth.

The idea that the Forbidden Kingdom of “Agartha” actually exists was not only said to have been supported by Admiral Byrd but by other explorers around the world. A Map made by cartographer Heinrich C. Berann is believed to show an entrance to the inner Earth, the Kingdom of Agartha.

In that map, the Antarctic continent can be observed without its thick layer of ice. But the most intriguing detail are the presence of underwater passages spanning across the entire continent and seem to converge at the exact location which is identified as the opening towards the Hollow Earth or Inner Earth.

Leonard Euler, a mathematical genius of the eighteenth century, concluded that the Earth was hollow, containing a central sun and was inhabited; and Dr. Edmund Halley, discoverer of Comet Halley and Royal Astronomer of England also believed that the Earth was hollow on the inside with three “Floors”.

Some also speak about Operation Highjump and Admiral Byrd’s journeys where extremely advanced airships were seen flying around and exploring new territories. Not long ago, we discovered a map of the third Reich in which there are several secret passages depicted which were used by German U-Boats to access mysterious underground regions, as well as a complete map of both hemispheres and the mysterious kingdom of Agartha.

A letter, supposedly written by Karl Unger, one of the crew members of a German Uboat states that they had reached the interior of the Earth, and that they did not consider returning. All of these stories seem to be backed up by numerous discoveries and recently, scientists discovered a large ocean of water inside the mantle of Earth, and they point out that it is a large water “tank” that could fill the oceans on Earth three times.

Must-read: Nazi Maps and Documents to Agartha Confirm the Hollow Earth Accounts.

This incredible discovery suggests that the surface water of the planet came from within Earth, as part of a “complete water cycle on the planet” instead of the dominant theory proposed that water arrived to Earth by icy comets that passed by the planet millions of years ago.

The Nazis were also extremely interested in the Inner Earth and myths associated with it. It is believed that Antarctica is the entrance to the lost Aryan homeland of Thule. Even though Antarctica has been linked to the lost continent of Atlantis, the linkage to Thule is less apparent.

Thule (also known as Thula, Thyle, Thila, Tila, Tyle, or Tylen) was first mentioned by Greek explorer Pytheas after his travels between 330 BC and 320 BC. But in 150 AD, Greek writer Antonius Diogenes wrote The Wonders Beyond Thule. In the distant past, Thule was believed to have been a distant place located beyond the “borders of the known world.”

Interestingly in 2001 the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the Support Office for Aero-geophysical Research discovered the existence of a magnetic anomaly believed to be on the eastside shore of Lake Vostok in Antarctica, the anomaly is believed to be consistent with a man-made construction.

Reference: Ancient-Code.com

These 10 Facts About The Paracas Skulls Hint Of Ancient Aliens

Are the Paracas skulls the missing link in the origin of mankind? Do they belong to a species that did not originate on Earth? Or are they just another example of cranial deformation?

The enigmatic Paracas skulls are surely one of the most enigmatic discoveries ever made.

Discovered deep in the desert peninsula of Paracas, on the southern coast o Peru, in the barren landscape Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello came across a complex and sophisticated graveyard in 1928. What he found buried there could change everything we know about the history of mankind.

Even though skeptics remain unconfident about the Paracas skulls, many people believe not only could they indicate a missing link in humans origins, but an entirely new species that did not originate on Earth.

It’s up to science to decide who is right.

Here we have 10 interesting facts about the enigmatic Paracas Skulls, a set of controversial human remains that would forever change how we look at our ancestor and our origins:

The bodies in the tombs had some of the largest elongated skulls ever discovered on the planet.
The Peruvian archeologist discovered over 300 mysterious skulls which are believed to be at least around 3000 years old.


There are certain South American tribes that used to ‘bind infant’s skulls’ in order to change their shape, resulting in a drastically elongated cranial shape that resembled anything but ordinary humans.


By applying constant pressure over a long period of time with the use of pieces of wood, the ancient tribes would achieve a cranial deformation which can also be found in ancient cultures from Africa.

While this type of cranial deformation changed the shape of the skull, it did not alter the size, weight or cranial volume, all of which are characteristic traits of regular human skulls.


The cranium of the Paracas skulls is are least 25 % larger and up to 60% heavier than the skulls of regular human beings.


Not only are they different in weight, the Paracas skulls are also structurally different and only have one parietal plate while ordinary humans have two.
Five samples of the Paracas skulls were sent to undergo genetic testing.

The samples which consisted of hair, skin teeth and some fragments of cranial bones gave incredible details that have fueled the mystery surrounding these anomalous skulls.

The genetic laboratory to where the samples were sent was not informed of the origin of the skulls in order to avoid ‘influenced results’. The mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited from the mother, showed mutations that were unknown to any man, primate or animal found on planet Earth.


The mutations present in the samples of the Paracas skulls suggest that researchers were dealing with a completely new ‘human-like being’, very different from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals or Denisovans.


According to Brien Foerster, “It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far.”


A geneticist who participated in the study said: “the individuals from the Paracas skulls were so biologically different that it would have been impossible for humans and them to ‘interbreed’.

“I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree.”
Source: Ancient-Code.com