The Colony Of Puerto Rico, A Round Deal For The US: Since 1898 They Have Stole $6 Billion From The Island Economy…

The United States will not cut the umbilical cord to Puerto Rico for a simple reason: How productive it is in financial and geopolitical terms.

In 1898, Spain gave Puerto Rico to The United States as spoils of war. And since then, Uncle Sam has increased his coffers at the expense of production of capital that emigrates to the North, for the control of cabotage law in ports and airports; for contributions and taxes, for the exploitation of our natural resources, for the capitalization of the changes to the provisions on land reclassification and land use, for the imposition of unilateral trades in a corporation of consumption that generates millions that goes to the United States.

In short, because of the disastrous way we’ve been treated, which detonates in a process of gentrification and displacement without precedent in recent history.

According to (Economist) Jose Alameda, the profits are in the billions, not counting the damage to the Puerto Rican psyche”. It is only the economic question; “to get rid of Puerto Rican companies and replace them with foreign companies” said Martha Quiñones Dominguez, Ph.D. in Economics and Planning, professor at the Arecibo Campus of the University of Puerto Rico and former president of the Puerto Rico Association of Economists, when asked in an interview.

“This is without considering the exploitation of our natural resources and the human being as well. How much do the soldiers cost; mental colonialism and not counting corruption.

Only the use of land and expropriation of land and the displacement or change to Puerto Rican companies,” explained Dr. Quiñones.

Thus, what PR receives in federal funds such as Nutrition Assistance Programs or budget allocations for health, housing and education, in addition to the contribution from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for disasters such as the Hurricane Maria or earthquakes are NOT gifts, offerings or handouts… It is only part of the billions of dollars that have been stolen from PR since 1898, around $6 billion, according to estimates by economist Jose Alameda.


*Colonialism is not free of cost to the citizens who are colonized.

*The difference In the case of Puerto Rico, with other schemes of metropolis-colony, is because in 1917, The US Congress granted US Citizenship unilaterally.

*The cost results in the expropriation by force of the economic, social, political, and strategic location for the Military and Commercial value.

*The cost reaches $6,106,579,641,085 or $6.107 x 10. This amount is 59.9 times the current value of the nominal GOP of PR.

Let see if changes are in the horizon…

Free Association: the political option that can save Puerto Rico?

The political status of Puerto Rico is a long-standing problem that requires urgent action. The island, an unincorporated territory of the United States, is not a sovereign nation or state of the United States. This ambiguity must be addressed by both Americans and Puerto Ricans. The future well-being and prosperity of all Puerto Ricans depend on it.

The Puerto Rican economy has been in decline for decades, mainly because the political future of the island remains undetermined, with disastrous social, political, and economic consequences. This issue has been a dominant debate on the island, dividing and paralyzing Puerto Ricans for more than a century.

The absence of US leadership on this issue has encouraged and intensified Puerto Rico’s endless debate, declaring on several occasions that the future of the island will depend solely on the will of its people. This hands-off attitude has led to a political stalemate, which has led to an economic catastrophe.

Historically, the debate over Puerto Rico’s future has centered on three options: statehood, independence, and commonwealth (the status quo)

The Future of Puerto Rico

Of the three options, statehood has received the most media attention. However, given the political, economic and cultural conditions, making Puerto Rico a US state had absolutely no future.

This is a well-known fact to most, except for U.S. and Puerto Rican politicians, who have made a career out of promising that their concession is just around the corner. What kind of statehood can be granted to a territory that half the population neither wants nor feels American, while the other half favors it only as a guarantee of perpetual welfare assistance? (Nanny State)

As for independence, the second option, popular support has been low among the population of Puerto Rico during the last decades. Independence has been scapegoated and demonized as the worst of the available options.

The Commonwealth option, given its dramatic failure and its electoral rejection by more than half of the population of Puerto Rico, cannot be a viable option either.

I remember what my dad used to say. “If the elections were on a Friday night, La Independencia would win”

Free Association

This reality leads us to another status option that is not well understood in Puerto Rico, but is recognized by U.S. and international law

Such an agreement would imply the end of Puerto Rico’s territorial status and the birth of a new sovereign country in the Caribbean, fully integrated into the international community and the UN system. Under a free association pact, the United States would continue its financial assistance to Puerto Rico and help the island develop a productive economy. As a sovereign state, Puerto Rico would delegate specific responsibilities to the United States, such as defense and currency matters, while retaining sovereignty over all other matters not included or delegated in the pact.

Due to the Spanish term used to describe the current Commonwealth (Estado Libre Asociado or “estado asociado libre”), the formula of free association has been confused and sometimes misrepresented as identical to the current state.

However, genuine free association has the potential to become a state of consensus in which supporters of all alternatives can get what is most important to them, while considering U.S. national interests.

Free association is the only path available to Puerto Rico and the only way to foster its prosperity while maintaining a non-territorial relationship with the United States that can bring countries closer together.


The 1960 UN resolution that established free association as a decolonizing alternative did not combine free association with independence. Both must be understood as two different types of self-government.

The resolution did not establish any size or population requirements for a territory to achieve free association. It only requires that “it be the result of a free and voluntary choice of the peoples of the territory in question, expressed through informed and democratic processes.” The exact form of the partnership is left to the parties to negotiate. Free association is a state of “middle ground” whereby the interests of all parties can be reconciled, and each can become a winner.
The most important and relevant examples of the political status of free association are detailed in the Compact of Free Association, which has been in force between the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau. The pacts were implemented more than 30 years ago and have been renewed ever since.

The accords transferred complete internal self-government to the new nation states, as well as authority in foreign affairs that led to their membership in the United Nations. The Pact retains full authority in matters of defense and security in the United States and obliges Washington to provide economic assistance.

Road to Free Association

Negotiations to establish a free association agreement between Puerto Rico and the United States must be carried out by the Executive Branch of the United States government, with the active participation of Congress. Puerto Rican negotiators must be chosen from among the most capable defenders and non-partisans of the island’s interests.

Before negotiations begin, the principles for free association will be agreed as a general outline of the terms under negotiation. The final negotiated document must be approved by Congress and by the people of Puerto Rico through a democratic referendum.

A free association status for Puerto Rico concludes a seemingly endless, divisive, and sometimes vicious debate. It offered the people of Puerto Rico a new opportunity to build a truly democratic country, create a much-needed productive economy, and ultimately become a self-sufficient society.

El Morro: The Great 16th Century Fort That Saved Puerto Rico from British and Dutch Invasions

Castillo de San Felipe del Morro

Castillo de San Felipe del Morro is a fort that sits majestically on the northeastern coast of Puerto Rico in the capital city of San Juan.  In 1983, the fort was declared a world heritage site by the United Nations for its historical significance and for its astounding military engineering of “stout walls, carefully planned steps, and ramps for moving men and artillery.”    Millions of tourists converge on this site annually to learn about its historical importance in the region; but, some of these tourists also visit because they have heard about the alleged hauntings that occur at the fort. 

History of San Juan and Its Fort

When explorers arrived in the Americas from Spain, they would settle an area, claiming it for the Spanish empire.  Puerto Rico was one of the first islands discovered in the New World by Genoese captain, Christopher Columbus in 1493.   It was later settled in 1508 by Juan Ponce de Leon who enslaved the native population of Taino Indians under the repartimiento system in order to extract the gold from the area and establish a gold mining colony.  Disease and famine caused the native population to dwindle drastically and as a result, in 1513 enslaved Africans were brought to the colony to mine and extract the gold under a new less repressive system known as the encomienda system.

Reconstruction of Taino village, Puerto Rico

Within a few decades, Puerto Rico became one of the wealthiest seaports in the Americas making it a target for other European nations exploring the New World.  Not only was it a rich seaport, its strategic location in the Caribbean made it a sought-after piece of land because whoever owned this position could gain a foothold in the entire western world.  The Spanish were aware of this vulnerability and thus made Puerto Rico’s coast one of the most densely fortified in the region.

Work began on Castillo de San Felipe del Morro in the late 1530s to protect the Spanish conquistadors’ lands from attacks by seafaring enemies and the threat of pirates.  The fort was named in honor of Philip II of Spain, but it is Charles V of Spain who ordered engineers Juan de Tejada and Juan Bautista Antonelli to design the fort.  Once it was complete, the fort would prove its worth when Britain challenged its stronghold in 1595 under the leadership of Sir Francis Drake. Spanish settlers staved off his attack by shooting a cannonball into Drake’s ship causing his retreat.

Charles V in Armour by Peter Paul Rubens circa 1600

The British Crown’s desire to acquire Spanish lands did not end with Drake’s defeat.  George Clifford, the 3 rd Earl of Cumberland, invaded Puerto Rico but instead of invading through the islet of Old San Juan as Drake had unsuccessfully done, he staged a land attack in which he was successful in overtaking the city.

Earl of Cumberland’s Successful Takeover and His Ultimate Demise

It would seem that the Earl of Cumberland’s successful invasion in 1598 would spell victory for the British in the newly discovered territory.  Unfortunately, the food that they had relied on to survive was contaminated by Puerto Rico’s ravaging summer heat.  George, along with many of his soldiers fell victim to a foodborne illness which triggered dysentery, an intestinal infection that causes fever, abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea.    This forced George and his crew to leave the island and return to Britain; however, they didn’t leave empty-handed.  Before heading back to Britain, they sacked the city and took anything of value that they could.   

View of El Morro ( Castillo de San Felipe del Morro), San Juan

The Dutch Invasion of San Juan

As if the looming threat of the British wasn’t enough, the Spanish found themselves facing a new threat from the Dutch a few decades after the Earl of Cumberland’s invasion.  Boudewijn Hendricksz decided to use George’s military action of overland invasion to achieve his aim of taking San Juan from the Spanish.  Boudewijn may have assumed that this would be an easy defeat, but to his dismay, his strategy failed.  His military forces sacked the city, but they weren’t able to capture it as he had planned. 

The United States’ Takeover

Since the Spanish arrived in the 1500s, they were able to stave off an invasion from the British and the Dutch who coveted this land for its strategic location in the Caribbean and its gold.  Although the British and the Dutch weren’t successful, the United States would become the only foreign invader to successfully take over the fort and the entire country during the Spanish-American War.   The war ended with the Treaty of Paris turning Puerto Rico and several other islands over to the United States.

Photo from 5th level of El Morro looking out into the harbor.

Ghosts Invade El Morro

The US may have been the only successful invader to take over El Morro Fort in Puerto Rico.  However, according to legend, several ghosts have made the fort their home, also.  One such ghost that seems to be famous at the fort is the ghost known as the lady in white.  This apparition is usually seen near a lighthouse known as La Garita del Diablo or the Devil’s Watchtower. Her apparition is usually seen floating along the ramparts.

View of a corner turret from one of the ramparts (La Garita del Diablo)

Another legend is the legend of the ghost soldier that vanished .  When Spanish soldiers manned the fort, they would call out the words “Alerta” or “Alert” which was their way of making sure that the soldiers were awake and watching over the fort.  When one soldier didn’t hear a response, he went into the Garita (watchtower) to check on the soldier that was supposed to be stationed there.  Upon arrival, the room was empty.  The missing ghost soldier still haunts the fort. 

Aside from a ghost sighting or two, some say that they can hear footsteps of soldiers, yellow orbs floating around, or wailing sounds.  Some have even reported feeling dizzy or queasy in certain areas near the fort.  Whether visiting for historical reasons or to explore the paranormal, Castillo de San Felipe del Morro remains one of the marvels of the Americas linking the architecture of old medieval Spain to the modern world.

Ramparts of El Morro


Lieutenant Colonel Teófilo Marxuach

Lieutenant Colonel Teófilo Marxuach, (July 28, 1877 – November 8, 1939), was the person who ordered the first shots fired in World War I (From El Morro) on behalf of the United States on an armed German supply ship trying to force its way out of the San Juan Bay  on March 21, 1915.

Fort of Castillo San Cristóbal: Built to Defend Against the English, Dutch and Marauding Pirates

Puerto Rico is a unique island with stunning scenery as well as a complex history and fascinating culture. It was part of the Spanish Empire for approximately 400 years and there are many reminders of the long Spanish occupation of the island, the most impressive of which is the fort of San Cristóbal, located in the capital of San Juan. This is regarded as the biggest military fortress in all the Americas and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Spanish History of Castillo San Cristóbal

In 1521, the Spanish founded the present-day city of San Juan, not long after Columbus reached the Americas, and they established a series of fortifications to protect their new settlement. It was originally known as Puerto Rico and ultimately it gave its name to the entire island.

Over time the settlement became known as San Juan. Its population grew and it prospered which attracted the attention of pirates. In 1595, the English under Sir Francis Drake attacked San Juan and destroyed some of its fortifications. Not long after, in 1598, the town was occupied and sacked by the English once again. The Spanish garrison was besieged in the local fort and they were eventually forced to surrender. Later, in 1628 the Dutch attacked San Juan from the landward side and the town was once again badly damaged. After this attack the Spanish colonial government decided that San Juan needed to be better defended and Castillo San Cristóbal was established.

The Construction of Castillo San Cristóbal

The entire construction took place over a period of 150 years. The Spanish governor built a small redoubt or fort on the hill known as San Cristóbal (Saint Christopher). Along with the fort San Felipe del Morro , it was designed to protect San Juan.

In the 1760s, San Cristóbal was greatly expanded to protect the growing city. The chief engineers of the project were Tomás O’Daly and Juan Francisco Mestre. The construction, a vast undertaking, took place between 1766 and 1783.

The fortification of San Cristobal’s immense walls

Not long after it was completed, the stronghold was badly damaged by an earthquake but was quickly repaired. The fort was key to the successful defense of San Juan in 1787 when the Spanish and Puerto Rican garrison repelled another English attack.

During the Spanish American War, the fortress came under attack from US warships. San Cristóbal’s guns fought a day-long battle with the USS Yale before surrendering, and Puerto Rico became a US territory in 1898. It was later occupied by the American army during WWI and they built observation towers at the site during WWII.

What to See at Castillo San Cristóbal?

A steep ramp leads to the gates of the historic fortress as San Cristóbal overlooks the sea and San Juan. The site is a large one and it stretches over several hectares. It was modeled on the European forts designed by Vauban, a French military engineer who’s considered to be a genius.

San Cristóbal, like other Vauban-inspired forts, is in the form of a hexagon, with a bastion or stronghold at every corner. This was to create dead-zones around the fortress so that the gunners on the walls had a clean line of fire.

The old gate at the east end of Castillo de San Cristobal 

The walls of the fortress are still intact and there are many observation posts, known as guerites, along the walls. They hang over the walls of the fortress and the oldest one dates from 1634. One of the posts, known as the Devils guerites, is believed to be haunted.

Other features of the fortress are cannons, a moat, and various bunkers. There is an impressive square at the heart of the fortress. The fortress also has some well-preserved examples of 19th century coastal artillery.

A portion of the tunnel system that runs beneath San Cristóbal 

The original builders installed a vast cistern in the fortress which is used to irrigate the surrounding area which is a national park. A large maze-like tunnel complex under the stronghold, built to make it more difficult for attackers to seize the site, was used for storage and communications.  

Getting to Castillo San Cristóbal

San Cristóbal is not far from San Juan. An entrance fee is required to visit, and organized tours are available. While some areas of the walls are not open to the public, nearly all the complex can be visited. There is a small museum with exhibitions from the long and dramatic history of San Cristóbal which is situated in beautiful parklands. A range of accommodation is available nearby.

Killing Napoleon…Again

JUNE 7, 2022

NY Times:
Napoleon Isn’t a Hero to Celebrate

“Professor” Marlene L. Daut “Phd” teaches “African Diaspora Studies” at the University of Virginia. That alone — neither supporting research nor footnotes needed — absolutely proves that she talks out of her ass and hates “The White Man” (even though she is married to a White “cuck”).

The latest target of the “cancel culture” Napoleon Bonaparte — who, Hitler defied the House of Rothschild and was forced into protracted defensive warfare against Britain and her allies.

Daut’s ignorance, on full display in this Op-Ed piece for the NY Times, is as appalling as her bigotry. Join us for a well-deserved bitch-smacking of this hateful hell-cat.

1. The untaught anti-White professorette (who clearly happens to have an abundance of White DNA) wishes to teach us about Napoleon. // 2. Read book by M. King // 3. Scene from 1934 Hollywood film, The House of Rothschild, depicts the cunning Brothers Rothschild dictating to “The Allies” the conditions for their financing of the war to topple Napoleon.

Daut: After statues of enslavers and colonizers were toppled, defaced or taken down across Europe and the United States, France decided to move in the opposite direction.
Analysis: Reading between the lines here, it is clear that Ms. Daut approves of physical and cultural vandalism.

Daut: The year 2021 was hailed by many museums and institutions in the country as the “Year of Napoleon” to commemorate France’s biggest tyrant.
Analysis: The “tyrant” actually liberated his people from usury; expanded educational opportunities for the children of common folk; opened up advancement based upon merit; and was universally beloved by the people of France — except for the Illuminati / Red Jacobin scum who tried to kill him.

Daut: As a Black woman of Haitian descent and a scholar of French colonialism, I find it particularly galling to see that France plans to celebrate the man who restored slavery to the French Caribbean.
Rebuttal: As a Hispanic Man of European (Spain), Black (Africa) and Taino Indian (Puerto Rico) descent and a “scholar” of real history, I find it particularly galling to have to listen you crybabies trash history and when our Black ancestors also practiced slavery. That’s the way it was back then — get over it!

Daut: He was an architect of modern genocide, whose troops created gas chambers to kill my ancestors.
Rebuttal: “Gas chambers?” — You too? Oy vey — or shall we say “Sacre bleu.” Did the French use Zyklon B too?

Daut: First, some history: In 1794, in the wake of the revolution that transformed France from a monarchy into a republic — France declared slavery’s abolition throughout its territory. But in 1802, Napoleon was in charge and reversed that decision, making France the only country to ever have brought back slavery after abolishing it. …The French only definitively re-abolished slavery in 1848.
Rebuttal: Waaaah! Waaaah! Waaaah! Get over it. And by the way, a reader named “Ken” informs us:

“As a Napoleonic scholar I would like to mention that Napoleon did not want to reintroduce slavery in Haiti. He was coerced into it by the reaction to the horrors committed against Whites; and many powerful people in France demanded it.”

Daut: Although Napoleon also destroyed the very republic the French claim to revere when he made himself emperor in 1804….
Rebuttal: Actually, Marlene, what Napoleon and his followers “destroyed” was the murderous atheistic Jacobin tyranny (early Bolsheviks) which called itself a “republic” –as well as the libtarded cousins that replaced them (The Directory). Though he named himself “Emperor,” France in many ways remained an “egalitarian” nation governed fairly by the rule of law (the Napoleonic Code).

Daut: It is still common for the French to lionize him as a hero…
Rebuttal: That’s because it is impossible to totally erase the memory of the great deeds of a great man — even in libtarded France. Give it another 30 years or so, and the legend of Hitler will also rise again (unless the New World Order achieves final victory, that is).

Daut:  … who not only stomped all over Europe at the Battle of Austerlitz….
Rebuttal: What the professorette doesn’t tell you (or probably doesn’t even know herself) is that the Battle of Austerlitz (in which the French soundly defeated the Austrians and Russians) brought an end to the Third Coalition War which the old monarchies of Europe — led by King George III’s British bullies — imposed upon revolutionary France. There would be four more “Napoleonic Wars” instigated against France — always led by Britain and later financed by the House of Rothschild. That is why Napoleon “stomped all over Europe.”

Daut: … but also created the modern legal code and the education system still in use.
Rebuttal: And a damn fine code and a damn system it must have been to serve France for 200 years and counting!

The Napoleonic Code — which Napoleon himself had a direct hand in authoring — has withstood the test of time.

Daut: Things unfolded tragically in Haiti. Under two generals who were sent to the island by Napoleon to, in his words, “annihilate the government of the Blacks,” the French Army was ordered to kill all the people of color in the colony who had ever “worn an epaulet.”
Analysis: Haiti was part of the French Empire. It fell to the Jacobinized Blacks. Many innocent Whites — not all of them slaveholders — were slaughtered. Napoleon had an obligation to protect the innocent French residents — many of whom were actually friendly and sympathetic toward the Blacks and mulattoes of Haiti (from which Ms. Daut is descended).

Daut: My students and colleagues, in both France and the United States, usually respond with shock and horror when I describe how thousands of Black people in Saint-Domingue were so cruelly killed by the French.
Analysis: What this forked-tongue serpent conveniently fails to mention is that both sides waged a brutal struggle. In 1804, after the French failed to retake Haiti, the cruel Haitian General Dessalines ordered the mass massacre of every last French man, woman and child on the island. (That’s why there are no Whites in Haiti today). The “shock and horror” that these Whites — who naively remained in “liberated” Haiti and harbored no animosity toward the Blacks — must have felt when machete-wielding killers went door-to-door at night doesn’t seem to move Ms. Daut to tears though. In fact, she evidently admires the beast Dessalines! (hereand (here)

Daut: Perhaps French leaders should open an inquiry into why Napoleon, a racist and genocidal warmonger….
Rebutal: Napoleon was NOT a warmonger. All seven of the “Coalition Wars” (3-7 aka “The Napoleonic Wars”) were imposed upon France by the old monarchies of Europe — thus compelling Napoleon to occupy other states and install friendly Kings.

Haitian Monster 
Jean-Jacques Dessalines ordered the massacre of every French man, woman and child in Haiti — many of whom had never even been slaveholders and had been friendly with the non-Whites. Dessalines’s legendary cruelty was such that many mulattoes and Blacks feared him as well.

* Dessalines — referred to even by many Haitians as a tyrant — would himself be assassinated in 1806. His body was then stomped upon and mutilated by an angry mob. Haiti has remained misgoverned ever since.

Experts Finally Know Why The USS Cyclops Vanished In The Bermuda Triangle

USS Cyclops

In 1918 the U.S.S. Cyclops, a collier carrying 11,000 tons of manganese ore, sets sail from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Headed for Baltimore, Maryland, she sends a brief message during her journey. This reads simply, “Weather fair, all well.” That is the last that’s ever heard from Cyclops and her 306-strong crew. Her location at the time of her disappearance is slap-bang in the middle of the notorious Bermuda Triangle.

Cyclops had been launched in 1910, built for the U.S. Navy as one of four Proteus-class ships. But when she disappeared sometime after March 4, 1918, America had been embroiled in World War I. So, her journey from Salvador to Baltimore was part of the war effort, delivering essential manganese ore for steel manufacture.

Cyclops had embarked from Rio de Janeiro on February 16, 1918. Two days later she’d stopped off at another Brazilian port – Salvador. From there, she was due to sail straight to Baltimore, but she then docked at the Caribbean island of Barbados. This was due to concerns that she was sitting too low in the water.

At Barbados, however, concerns about the ship seemed to have been resolved. So, she resumed her journey to Baltimore on March 4. Her journey should have taken nine days, meaning that she should have docked at the American port around March 13. But as we know, she never made it, vanishing somewhere north of Barbados in the infamous area known as the Bermuda Triangle.

Before we explore the mystery of Cyclops’ disappearance further, let’s find out a little more about the ship. Cyclops was one of four ships of the Proteus class, all of which had been designed to carry coal. The first was named Proteus, which was launched in September 1912 and commissioned into the U.S. Navy in the summer of 1913.

The other two Proteus-class vessels were Jupiter – launched in August 1912 – and Nereus, whose launch came in April 1913. Interesting, two of Cyclops’ sister ships had something specific in common with the doomed ship. These were Proteus and Nereus, but we’ll come back to exactly what bound them all a little later.

All four of the ships were named for characters from Greek or Roman mythology. Proteus was a god of the sea with the power of prophecy. Nereus was another god associated with the sea and, like Proteus, was able to foretell the future. Cyclops was a one-eyed monster who also figured in both Roman and Greek mythology. Jupiter was a god who was styled as king of all the ancient Roman deities.

The reason the Navy commissioned these four huge colliers – as well as another eight in the 20th century – was because of the dependence of much of its fleet on coal for power. The William Cramp & Sons shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, built Cyclops. This yard had a long history of building large vessels dating back to 1830.

Cyclops – which was launched on May 7, 1910 – was a huge vessel. In a 2018 article, The Baltimore Sun harked back to the time of her launch. The paper noted that the press of the day described Cyclops as “a floating coal mine” and “a monster collier.” Given its 542-foot length and 65-foot width, it seems these elaborate terms were quite appropriate.

Cyclops was built to carry up to 12,500 tons of coal. Yet even with that enormous load, her twin propellers could drive her through the sea at speeds of up to 15 knots. At the time of her launch, she was the largest and speediest collier sailing for the U.S. Navy. And the ship’s enormous mechanical grabbers could apparently move a couple of tons of coal in one gigantic scoop.

Service for Cyclops started in November 1910, when she went into operation with the Naval Auxiliary Service, Atlantic Fleet. Around this time, she sailed to the Baltic, where she supported Navy vessels. After arriving back in the U.S. at Norfolk, Virginia, she was assigned to cruise along the East Coast from Newport, Rhode Island, all the way south to the Caribbean.

In 1914 American forces occupied the Mexican port city of Veracruz. This, ultimately, marked a low-point in relations between the two countries. During this period, Cyclops provided fuel for the naval ships involved in the action. She was also pressed into service in the role of helping to evacuate those fleeing from the conflict.

The next major event in Cyclops’ career came in April 6, 1917, when the U.S. went to war with Germany. Now that America was an active participant in World War I, Cyclops was brought into the U.S. Navy on May 1, 1917. Her first mission was to sail across the Atlantic to Saint-Nazaire, France, as part of a naval convoy. After serving there, she was back in the States by July 1917, operating along the country’s East Coast.

Cyclops’ East Coast service continued until January 9, 1918, whereupon she was transferred to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. With this new outfit, she headed for the seas off Brazil, where she acted as a fueler for British Royal Navy ships patrolling in the South Atlantic. It was during these duties that the vessel made her final fateful journey.

The collier had set off from Norfolk on January 8, 1918, bound for Rio de Janeiro. She was loaded with coal weighing 9,960 tons. This was earmarked to fuel the Royal Navy ships in the South Atlantic. Cyclops arrived at her Brazilian destination on January 28. Having unloaded the coal, she was now given a new cargo for her return to the U.S.

This load for transport to America comprised 11,000 tons of manganese ore, which was vital for the production of much-needed steel for America’s war effort. This was something of an unusual load for the crew of Cyclops. They were more used to carrying coal which was lighter and less dense.

After spending a fortnight in Rio unloading and re-loading, Cyclops embarked on February 15, 1918. Her final destination was Baltimore, Maryland, but she would end up making two stops on her journey. The first of these stopovers occurred on February 20, when the ship docked at the Brazilian port of Salvador.

After a two-day stop in Salvador, Cyclops went out to sea again. This time, the initial plan was to head for Baltimore with no more interruptions to the journey. However, the collier did make another stop, this time at the Caribbean island of Barbados. At the time, this was part of the British Empire.

It seems that Cyclops’ skipper, Commander Worley, made this unscheduled port call because of concerns that his ship was lying too low in the water. Indeed, it’s been reported that the water was above the Plimsoll line. This is a mark running around a ship which represents the furthest depth that the vessel may legally go underwater.

Any concerns the captain had about Cyclops seem to have been overcome during this unscheduled Barbados stop on March 3, 1918. Having taken aboard more supplies – including a ton each of flour and meat, as well as 1,000 pounds of vegetables – the collier set off again for Baltimore. The date was March 4, 1918.

Cyclops was now something over 2,000 miles from her planned final destination of Baltimore, which she was due to reach around March 13. As we saw earlier, the ship sent one final message, simply saying, “Weather fair, all well.” But there was also word that one vessel had seen Cyclops on her final journey.

That vessel was a molasses tanker, the Amolco. But her captain later completely contradicted reports that he’d seen the vessel. Indeed, the one certain and grim piece of information about Cyclops and the 306 souls aboard her was that she didn’t arrive at Baltimore as scheduled. The ship was never seen again.

Two years after Cyclops vanished seemingly into thin air, Santa Fe Magazine published an article about the mystery. The magazine’s reporter wrote, “Usually a wooden bucket or a cork life preserver identified as belonging to a lost ship is picked up after a wreck. But not so with the Cyclops.”

The Santa Fe article continued, “She just disappeared as though some gigantic monster of the sea had grabbed her, men and all, and sent her into the depths of the ocean. And the suddenness of her destruction is amplified by the absence of any wireless calls for help being picked up by any ship along the route.”

And just to add a little more spice to this intriguing mystery, Cyclops disappeared in the Atlantic Ocean, north of Barbados, in the area known as the Bermuda Triangle. This stretch of water, of course, is much loved by conspiracy theorists. Indeed, it’s been claimed that it’s seen more unexplained disappearances of vessels and planes than any other place on Earth.

The mythology of the Bermuda Triangle can be traced back to 1950. This was the year when the Miami Herald published a piece by a writer called Edward Van Winkle Jones. He listed a series of ships and planes that had disappeared without a trace in the area also referred to as the Devil’s Triangle and Hurricane Alley. In the following years, other writers piled in, adding to the sinister enigma of the place.

And if you enjoy strange mysteries, then you’ll be bowled over by the unfortunate fate of two of Cyclops’ sister ships. You’ll recall that Cyclops was one of four Proteus-class colliers built in the early 20th century. She was the second to be launched, with the other three being ProteusJupiter and Nereus.

Both Proteus and Nereus supposedly disappeared within the limits of the Bermuda Triangle during World War II. Proteus sank along with all 58 of her crew sometime around November 25, 1941. This is thought to have happened in the Caribbean Sea. It’s believed that she was overcome by stormy weather.

Nereus was lost a couple of weeks after Proteus, at some point past December 10, 1941. She had been sailing from St. Thomas, one of the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean. She’d been holding a cargo of bauxite ore when she disappeared. Like Cyclops and Proteus, no trace of the ship was ever found. The assumption was that she’d fallen victim to a German vessel, but this has never been confirmed.

Certainly, the loss of three U.S. Navy ships from a class of just four would seem to confirm something ominous about the Bermuda Triangle. But it’s worth pointing out that there are plenty of skeptics who deny that anything particularly strange happens there. And many of them are eminent researchers from prestigious organizations.

US. Coastguard records show that the number of ships lost in the Bermuda Triangle isn’t disproportionate, given the amount of traffic the area sees. And Lloyds of London, a major marine insurer, doesn’t charge higher premiums for ships traveling through there. Considering that this institution has commercial interests at stake, if it believed the Bermuda Triangle was especially dangerous it would certainly be reflected in its charges.

However, even if we discount the potentially hazardous influence of the Bermuda Triangle in the disappearance of Cyclops, we’re still left with a baffling mystery. In fact, a wide range of theories have been posited to explain the collier’s perplexing vanishing act. These theories range from the highly unlikely to the entirely plausible.

Let’s start with the least likely. That honor probably falls to the idea that the ship might’ve been attacked and sunken by a giant octopus or squid. Perhaps it would have been serendipitous for a ship named after a one-eyed giant to be lost to a sea monster. But common sense surely dictates that we dismiss the intervention of an angry cephalopod as a theory.

Next, we can turn to the Cyclops’ captain, Lieutenant Commander George W. Worley. Enquiries about him by the Office of Naval Intelligence uncovered a distinctly murky past. Worley had actually come from Germany and had initially been named Johan Frederick Wichmann. He’d deserted a ship he was a sailor on in 1878, disembarking at San Francisco. Two decades later, he had taken on the name of Worley and was running a bar in San Francisco.

Worley became a merchant ship’s captain and may have been involved in opium smuggling. Somehow, he managed to become an officer in the Naval Auxiliary Reserve in February 1917. But it wasn’t so much Worley’s colorful past that people were concerned by. Rather, it was his personality when captaining the Cyclops.

Worley was alleged to be an extremely difficult man to get along with. He was said to have an explosive temper, once supposedly chasing a junior officer around the ship with a pistol. He was also an eccentric, given to touring his ship in his underwear, sporting a hat and a walking stick. And it seems he was deeply unpopular with at least some of the men under his command. Indeed, there was reportedly a mutiny at one point. The captain, though, ruthlessly suppressed this.

One officer named Conrad A. Nervig had served with Worley on the Cyclops. He, however, survived because he left the collier at Rio. In a 1969 interview with the U.S. Naval Institute magazine Proceedings, Nervig said Worley was a “gruff, eccentric salt of the old school… He was a very indifferent seaman and a poor, overly cautious navigator. Unfriendly and taciturn, he was generally disliked by both his officers and men.”

But the really serious charge against Worley was that he was actually an enemy collaborator. Among the passengers aboard Cyclops during her last journey was the American consul-general to Rio de Janeiro, Alfred Gottschalk. This man, it’s been alleged, was a German sympathizer. So, some people believe that he and Worley handed the ship over to the Germans. No evidence, however, has ever been produced to support this theory.

Returning to more evidence-based theories, it’s worth noting that Cyclops was using only one of its two engines during her last trip. The other one was actually inoperable due to a damaged cylinder. And then there was the weight of the ship. She carried unfamiliar cargo, manganese ore rather than the usual coal. This load may have been prone to movement, unbalancing the ship.

A 2018 documentary on British TV station Channel Five drew all the threads together. One contributor, Jeffrey Poole, a Miami sea pilot, gave his take on the Cyclops sinking. Poole said, “I mean, it would be pretty scary as a mariner to be on a ship listing that much, that frequently. You could take water over the side of the ship if it’s listing that much and it could also lead to cargo moving.” So, Cyclops likely sank due to a fatal confluence of negative factors.

1868 – A Holiday Blooms: Decoration Day, later called Memorial Day, is first observed

Every May, Americans anticipate the unofficial start of summer with the three-day Memorial Day weekend. However, they might be surprised to know that the holiday started not as a national day of remembrance, but as a local commemoration.

The beloved yet somber holiday traces its roots all the way back to the Civil War. Originally called Decoration Day, it honored those who had given their lives defending the United States in times of war. The name Decoration Day refers to the tradition of using flowers to embellish tombstones, and the holiday takes place in late May because that’s when flowers come into bloom.

Macon, Georgia; Waterloo, New York; Richmond, Virginia; Carbondale, Ilinois; and Boalsburg, Pennsylvania, all claim to have held the first Decoration Day in 1866.

However, there’s evidence that the event may have started a year earlier on May 1, 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina. Local Black residents who had been liberated at the end of the Civil War exhumed Union soldiers from a mass grave and gave the bodies proper burials to honor their sacrifice. Then they decorated the grave markers with flowers.

On May 30, 1868, the Grand Army of the Republic proclaimed the first “official” Decoration Day at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. Congressman — and later President — James Garfield presided over the program. In 1971, Congress declared it a national holiday, to be observed annually on the last Monday in May.

While most people think Memorial Day honors all veterans, it’s meant to honor only those who died in war defending our country. Today, widespread celebrations include fireworks displays, air shows, and barbecue get-togethers, but placing flowers on graves remains a treasured part of the tradition.

The First African King Of The Americas

Imagine that you were born in the Caribbean in 1530's (approximately) and when you grow up and have a conscience ... you learn that your name is MIGUEL, that your skin is black and that for that reason you are enslaved. You grow up without anyone explaining a valid reason for you to be a slave, but since no one cares what you think (because you know that for your own good it would not occur to you to say it out loud), you swallow it. One day not only do they sell you to "a man there" but this new master takes you out (without asking you) from what you know as your land (Puerto Rico)and your family; and it takes you to a jungle in what is now VENEZUELA, to work from sunrise to sunset in some rich mines to make someone else rich.
In one of those endless days of abuse and mistreatment, out of nowhere, the "master" grabs you and tries to tie you to a stick to whip you ..... and you can't take it anymore ... ENOUGH NOW! with speed, you take the sword from him, you knock him down with a push with strength and in the uproar and scramble, you flee to the mountains. From there:
____ you start visiting night camps to SUCCESSFULLY recruit blacks and Indians to join you and escape exploitation and punishment.
____ You freed so many that you form your own army, everyone admires you for your bravery, and your fame spreads everywhere.
____ you build a fortress in the mountains; between palisades and trenches forms YOUR MONARCHY:
... you found a town
... you proclaim yourself KING
... you name your partner, QUEEN
... and the son you have with her: PRINCE and HEIR of the throne.
____ designate your OFFICERS
____ designate your MINISTERS
____ and by your cojones you designate a BISHOP, who you will choose from among the most prestigious blacks (literate) and impeccable conduct.
You will become the nightmare that will make the Spaniards tremble, with guerrillas armed with bows, arrows, spears and some swords.
____ You successfully attack the populations of the whites (Spaniards), they kill several Spanish miners and others after torturing them, you release them, but not without first telling them to tell the whites (Spaniards) to be prepared because “YOU ARE GOING AFTER THEM” to avenge all the mistreatments caused to your people.

King Miguel became a WHOLE LEGEND ... and what do you think? Well, any country is going to fight a character of so many carats. Venezuela has it incorporated (as it has to be) to its national history, you will find many videos on YT where there are young AFRICANS, stating that King Miguel was a native of their countries ...
There is no longer a controversy, because historians found in Juan de Castellanos's Ancient Elegies written for that time, something that clarifies its SINGLE ORIGIN ... and the Spanish poet says:

"One hundred and fifty blacks are made from war,
fierce people, well placed and risky,
and in rough ravine of the sierra
they gave a strong beating "

They put all the land in fear
for being our time and apart,
and each one kept their seats
waiting for the blacks at times ”.

"Because they solemnly swore king,
put in the place that I apply to them,
because this was MIGUEL, BRAVE NEGRO,

If the question is ...... FIRST AFRICAN KING IN THE AMERICAS?
The answer is ... PUERTO RICO!

Media Blackout: Massive Gathering In Germany As RFK Jr. Exposes Bill Gates & Big Pharma

Children’s Health Defense Director and renowned lawyer Robert F. Kennedy Jr. recently spoke to a very large crowd in Berlin, Germany in what was a gathering of of tens of thousands of people who came together to create awareness and protest against what Kennedy referred to as Bill Gates’ “bio-security agenda, the rise of the authoritarian surveillance state and the Big Pharma sponsored coup d’etat against liberal democracy.”

According to Kennedy, and many others around the globe, “the pandemic is a crisis of convenience for the elite who are dictating these policies… Fifty years ago, my uncle John F. Kennedy came to this city.

“He came to this land, because Berlin was the frontline against global totalitarianism. And today again, Berlin is the frontline against global totalitarianism.”

Media Blackout Massive Gathering In Germany As Rfk Jr. Exposes Bill Gates & Big Pharma

We also published an article written by Kennedy a couple of years ago that also provides more about Gates’ relationship with big pharma.

It’s hard to really know how many people showed up, but judging by the pictures it seems like a lot were in attendance. Mainstream media completely ignored the gathering.

According to Kennedy,

“This was one of 40 sites scattered around Berlin where where some 1.5 million people gathered around separate stages to evade police harassment and peacefully protest the alarming global rise of Medical & Digital Totalitarianism.”

If mainstream media covered a gathering of one thousand, they could make it a big spectacle and make it seem as the “majority” feel a certain way.

When they don’t cover something that threatens their and their partners interests, which in this case is big pharma, they can make it seem like it never happened, no matter how big the gathering is.

Mainstream media can make it seem as if the majority is the minority, and the minority is the majority.

Bill Gates has also recently been dubbed the ‘journalism gatekeeper.’ Not only does he practically own the WHO and Big Pharma, the same goes for mainstream media.

A recent Instagram post made by Kennedy expresses his feelings about the event, and the resistance the gatherings faced:

“Beneath the Siegesäule Monument where I spoke. This was one of 40 sites scattered around Berlin where where some 1.5 million people gathered around separate stages to evade police harassment and peacefully protest the alarming global rise of Medical & Digital Totalitarianism.

“As I said in my speech, the government strategy is to portray the protestors as right wing extremists or “Covid Deniers”(a euphemism, in the official narrative for Holocaust deniers) none of which is true.

“The government issued three proclamations declaring the protest illegal. Our Rapid Response team of lawyers successfully appealed each of these declarations in court.

“The Pharma-controlled main stream media blacked out all coverage the main event altogether-ignoring what were perhaps the largest crowds in German history. No main stream media covered this momentous gathering.

“The only media reports claimed only 38,000 people & showed clips of a staged incident where 100 riot police colluded in a false flag show with some 50 agents provocateurs in Nazi regalia near the Reichtag miles from our protest.

“The obsequious Pharmedia dutifully conflated that phony fascist Kabuki play with our peaceful democratic event to claim we were allied with violent far right extremists 6)World Futbol champion (1990)Thomas Bartholdi and his wife Britta Protest 7)German National Team Basketball Star Joshiko Saibou and Olympic long jump champion Alexandra Westore. 8)Organizer Attorney Marcus Haintz and program moderator Nana from Ghana. KP

Berlin Protest Covid 19

Below is a brief clip of him speaking I found on YouTube:

Why This Is Important

The number of activists from all walks of life, from all professions, including thousands of doctors and scientists who have been questioning actions that have been and are being taken by governments around the world for a long time is quite large and continues to grow.

Speaking of Germany, for example, More than 500 German doctors & scientists have signed on as representatives of an organization called the “Corona Extra-Parliamentary Inquiry Committee” to investigate what’s happening on our planet with regards to COVID-19.

They also believe that the measures and actions being taken by governments worldwide represent a draconian totalitarian agenda that’s continuing to play out under the guise of goodwill. These are actions that are completely unnecessary, unscientific and even harmful according to them and many others.

“The medical profession is being bought by the pharmaceutical industry, not only in terms of the practice of medicine, but also in terms of teaching and research. The academic institutions of this country are allowing themselves to be the paid agents of the pharmaceutical industry. I think it’s disgraceful.” – Arnold Seymour Relman (1923-2014), Harvard professor of medicine and former Editor-in-Chief of The New England Medical Journal (source)

A couple of years ago, Kennedy explained the power big pharma has in the United States, let alone the world:

Those of you who have been involved in the past in the battle to protect our children from poorly made vaccines or toxic chemicals in our food or in our water know the power of these industries and how they’ve undermined every institution in our democracy that is supposed to protect little children from powerful, greedy corporations.

Even the pharmaceutical companies have been able to purchase congress. They’re the largest lobbying entity in Washington D.C.. They have more lobbyists in Washington D.C. than there are congressman and senators combined.

They give twice to congress what the next largest lobbying entity is, which is oil and gas… Imagine the power they exercise over both republicans and democrats. They’ve captured them (our regulatory agencies) and turned them into sock puppets. They’ve compromised the press… and they destroy the publications that publish real science. (source)

The question is, why are so many people who share these opinions completely censored? Even when there are thousands of them, when it comes to covid the list of renowned doctors and scientists is quite long.

As authoritarianism spreads, as emergency laws proliferate, as we sacrifice our rights, we also sacrifice our capability to arrest the slide into a less liberal and less free world. Do you truly believe that when the first wave, this second wave, the 16th wave of the coronavirus is a long forgotten memory, that these capabilities will not be kept? – Edward Snowden (source)

I’ve written numerous articles expressing the feelings, opinions, research and data of many explaining why lockdown measures and more for covid seem quite ridiculous.

Here’s one of many that goes into the infection fatality rate, for example, the article linked above with regards to the more than 500 German doctors and scientist is another example. To read more of our coverage throughout this pandemic, you can click here.

The Takeaway

Why is there a digital authoritarian Orwellian “fact-checker” going around the internet that is censoring information that’s clearly not false?

Why are they censoring information that doesn’t fit the narrative of the World Health Organization (WHO)?

Why are the leaked documents from Wikileaks showing the influence that Big Pharma has within the WHO completely ignored?

Why does mainstream media constantly use ridicule, character assassination and words like “conspiracy theory” instead of actually addressing and countering the points being made by so many doctors, scientists and activists? Why can’t we have these discussions openly and transparently?

What is going on here?

Our world is going through a massive shift in consciousness, and the COVID-19 pandemic has and is serving as a catalyst for more and more people to start questioning exactly what is going on here instead of simply believing what they are hearing and seeing on their television screens.

This questioning and critical inquiry results in a perception shift, and the world people once thought was becomes something completely different. Not everything is as we’ve been told and taught, and in order to change things for the better we have to be able to identify and see the problem.

This is exactly the process we are going through, and the more we ‘wake up’ the more effort there is from those who are threatened by our ‘awakening’ to silence and control us.

We are living in exciting times! It’s great to see an event like covid spark such a massive gathering of people who desire a better and more transparent world for all. We saw similar things after 9/11.

Tell Congress that Puerto Ricans want nationhood, not statehood

For Puerto Ricans who support self-determination, it is truly mind-blowing that some Democrats have the audacity to offer statehood as a solution on the question of Puerto Rico’s political status. At a time when Congress cannot come to grips with its responsibility to decolonize Puerto Rico – let alone guarantee a process of negotiation – support for statehood becomes suspicious at best, seeming way too much like political opportunism. The disconnect between the Puerto Rican reality and pro-statehood declarations is dismaying. 

Ill-informed support for statehood is based on several myths: 

Puerto Ricans are Americans: False. The Puerto Rican national identity remains an ethnic identification of peoples without a national citizenship of their own who live in a territory they call “their country.” This does not obscure the reality that Puerto Rico constitutes a nation, which has had a colonial relation with the United States since 1898. Ambiguities were created by Public Law 600and by the portrayal in 1953 at the United Nations of the Commonwealth as “a compact” between both nations. As the Harvard Law Review clearly stated in 2017: “Puerto Rico’s heart is not American. It is Puerto Rican.” 

Puerto Ricans in the U.S. have struggled for civil rights, but the political, societal and constitutional reality of Puerto Rico is altogether another issue. You cannot erase a nationhood by overlooking its existence and assume that “Puerto Ricans are Americans.” Such statements constitute a classic strategy of assimilation that negates Puerto Rico’s right to exist.

Most Puerto Ricans support statehood: False. Puerto Ricans have rejected statehood in five plebiscites held since 1968. The 2017 plebiscite was boycotted by all anti-statehood Puerto Rican parties, resulting in statehood receiving 97 percent support, with only 23 percent of registered voters’ participation. The 2012 plebiscite, so far the only one held the same day as local elections, was boycotted by one of the major political parties, resulting in an avalanche of blank votes, pro-independence and pro-Free Association, which outnumbered pro-statehood votes. Statehood persistently has lost support since the 1993 plebiscite (788,296 votes in 1993728,157 votes in 1998834,191 in 2012, and 502,801 in 2017). 

While in power, pro-statehood administrations have corrupted the Puerto Rican government to the point of its collapse, making this faction incapable of leading any future political project. In summer 2019, the pro-statehood governor Ricardo Rossello was ousted

Civil rights in the U.S. are not being addressed by making Puerto Rico a state. As an unincorporated territory, Puerto Rico has a different constitutional reality, and its urgency is not related to civil rights but rather to our human right to decolonization. Since 1998, the only political option gaining support is Free Association, a negotiated compact in which both countries become freely associated. 

Puerto Rico is not a country: False. The Foraker Act, the first law passed in Congress concerning Puerto Rico, stated that Puerto Ricans “shall be deemed and held to be citizens of Porto (sic) Rico.” Fifty years later, Public Law 600 recognized Puerto Ricans as “peoples.” In 1953, in a push to get international recognition for the Commonwealth as a pact between the U.S. and Puerto Rico “forming a political association, which respects the individuality and the cultural characteristics of Puerto Rico [and] maintains the spiritual bonds between Puerto Rico and Latin America,” the United States pursued Resolution 748 at the U.N. General Assembly, allowing the U.S. to cease delivering annual reports on Puerto Rico’s colonial status. Our nationhood has withstood all attempts to be assimilated. Puerto Ricans refer to Puerto Rico as “el País” (the country). Puerto Ricans are a nation, and its people are in Puerto Rico and in its global diaspora. We are not American expats living in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is a domestic issue: Partially true. Puerto Rico is a domestic issue as much as it is an international issue. The U.S. took over Puerto Rico through invasion, bilateral negotiation, and a peace protocol, normalizing the relationship through Supreme Court decisions known as the Insular Cases. The U.S. scored a diplomatic victory with U.N. approval of Resolution 748. Even though Puerto Ricans at the time already were U.S. citizens, and even if the country’s political fate was thought to have been sealed, Puerto Rico today again faces the important issue of sovereignty.

Furthermore, the persistent federal mismanagement of the humanitarian crisis following the 2017 hurricanes will continue to be an international issue, as economic, political and social conditions deteriorate. Puerto Rico is a pending international issue with multilateral repercussions.

Puerto Rico has no option but statehood: False. Puerto Rico’s status question can be resolved with strong bipartisan commitment. Inspired by its anti-colonial foundational spirit, guided by its experience with the freely associated republics in the Pacific, and in compliance with international law, the United States has available political options that Puerto Ricans would be ready to discuss. In fact, many Puerto Rican professionals agree that negotiating a compact of Free Association with the United States is the correct mechanism for finding a reasonable political solution to this issue.

Congress will serve the cause of Puerto Rico and the United States by understanding and accepting that Puerto Rico needs decolonization, through a process of dialogue and negotiation. Statehood goes against U.S. political and economic interests, and actually never has been on the negotiating table. Sovereignty serves the interests of both countries, and currently is Puerto Rico’s only feasible solution for decolonization and economic development.