A Silent Genocide Is Overtaking Italy

FEBRUARY 02, 2023

NY Times:The Double Whammy Making Italy the West’s Fastest-Shrinking Nation

Italy’s population of elder Italians is soaring as its birthrate plummets, putting the country at the forefront of a global demographic trend that experts call the “silver tsunami.”

BY JASON HOROWITZ

The engineered demographic implosion of the White western world happened so slowly that only the astute (a minority in every society) were able to foresee, decades ago, the disaster that is now upon us. Now that even the dullest bulbs of Normiedom can clearly see what is happening, it may already be too late to reverse course. Nowhere is this more evident than once-fertile / once-Catholic Italy — a land where children who actually have a first cousin are now in the minority.

The Times article – penned by a secretly delighted Jason Horowitz – accurately explains the dire dilemma:

“Italy’s population is aging and shrinking at the fastest rate in the West, forcing the country to adapt to a booming population of elderly that puts it at the forefront of a global demographic trend that experts call the “silver tsunami.” But it faces a demographic double whammy, with a drastically sinking birthrate that is among the lowest in Europe. Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni has said Italy is “destined to disappear” unless it changes.”(emphasis added)

Under normal circumstances, it takes a birth-rate of 2.1 children per woman just to maintain population. Italy has now been so infertile for so long that even an unforeseeable spike in births would not correct the death-to-birth imbalance for many years. And it’s not just Italy. Following close behind in this race to extinction are Germany, France, Britain, Spain, Scandinavia etc — as well as the White element of the United States, Canada and the lands “Down Under.”

1. Horrorshitz and his crowd know EXACTLY where this is headed — and are pleased to report about it, now that trend appears to be irreversible. // 2. Mamma Mia! Why a we no gotta no granachildren?”

The dim-witted analysts of sports journalism remain mystified as to why the once-legendary Italian National team cannot even qualify for the quadrennial World Cup tournaments — let alone advance to the finals. This particular fan of the “Azzurri” foresaw this inevitable development years ago. The pool of young players has been steadily shrinking because so many potential stars were not born!

In terms of the Italian / European labor force — which keeps the doors of commerce open and supports the elderly — there aren’t enough younger people to take the places of the retiring and the dying — unless, of course, the floodgates of Turd World immigration (for both professionals and laborers) are opened up. That would “save” Europe — and judging by this snide comment by Horowitz, that’s exactly what “they” are wishing upon Italy:

“Critics say (Jewspeak for “Marxist Jews say”) that Meloni’s “Italians First” opposition to immigration hurts population growth.”

This is indeed pure premeditated replacement — “Kalergism!”

Decades before the final integration & consolidation of the European nations into what we now know as the EU, Richard Coudenhove Kalergi’s “Pan-European” movement — as confirmed by Kalergi himself in his own autobiography — here — was financially backed by Jewish Cabal billionaire bosses such as “Baron” Louis de Rothschild, Bernard Baruch & The Brothers Warburg (Max & Paul).  Kalergi also managed to attract important heads of state to his bosses’ long term integration project.

The “usual suspects” called for Tucker Carlson to be fired when he spoke about the “Great Replacement.” Why do (((they))) always get so upset when this topic is mentioned? What exactly is (((their))) interest in it?

As far back as 1922, Kalergi aimed to create a global federation. European integration would be the first step in creating this future world government. This “founding front-man” of the EU also envisioned the silent genocide for the Whites of Europe. But in order for Kalergi’s openly-described “New Europe” of mixed races and slave citizens to rise, European “Fascism” had to fall. And THAT is what World War II was really all about! Indeed, Hitler himself, writing in Mein Kampf (1924), referred to Kalergi as a “cosmopolitan bastard.” (here) Years later, the “Nazis” chased Kalergi’s ilk out of Austria after the 1938 Germany-Austria merger (the Anschluss).

In his book “Praktischer Idealismus”(Practical Idealism), Kalergi boldly declared that the citizens of the future “United States of Europe” will not be White people. In his own words:

“The man of the future will be of mixed race. The races and classes of today will gradually disappear due to the elimination of space, time, and prejudice. The Eurasian-negroid race of the future, similar in appearance to the Ancient Egyptians, will replace the diversity of peoples with the diversity of individuals.”

Of course, Kalergi’s Jewish paymasters will not be replaced or blended out by this “Eurasian-Negroid race of the future.” Far from it. Writes the hired hack of his beloved paymasters (have your barf bag ready):

“Instead of destroying European Judaism, Europe, against her will, refined and educated this people, driving them to their future status as a leading nation through this artificial evolutionary process. It’s not surprising that the people that escaped from the Ghetto-Prison, became the spiritual nobility of Europe.”(emphasis added)

The fall of Whitey and the rise of the Jewish One Worlders. Was Kalergi a “prophet?” Not exactly. The game was rigged this way — and he knew it.

*Note: Though the White Man is being targeted for total extinction — an overall depopulation agenda also applies to non-White nations as well. There are simply too many of us (all races) – for them to control.

Pro-Anchluss poster depicts Austria’s liberals fleeing as NSDAP takes over. Kalergi was one of those who left.

Holohoax Debunk: The “Wannsee Conference” Lie

Portraits of European Jews “murdered” during the Holohoax, at the Holohoax Memorial in Berlin

JANUARY 25, 2023

NY Times:The Nazis Planned the ‘Final Solution.’ It Took 90 Minutes.

As Germany observes the anniversary of the Wannsee Conference, witnesses of the Nazi era are dying and antisemitism is resurgent in Europe and the United States.

By Katrin Bennhold

The song that never ends about the event which never happened has a new date to commemorate. January 20th is now  “observed” in pathetic Germany as the anniversary of “The Wannsee Conference” in which the alleged planning for the event which never happened took place in 1942. Katrin Bennhold — the Slimes’ German-based pantie-pissing, self-hating, not-bad-looking German libtardette shiksa who penned this piece oh-so-solemnly reports:

“On Jan. 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking officials of the Nazi bureaucracy met in a villa on Lake Wannsee on the western edge of Berlin. Nibbles were served and washed down with cognac. There was only one point on the agenda: “The organizational, logistical and material steps for a final solution of the Jewish question in Europe.”

Planning the Holocaust took all of 90 minutes.”

*

Nibbles and cognac were served, eh? And how do you know that, Katie?

It’s hard to tell if Frau Bennhold actually believes in Jewish-scripted Holocaustianity or if she’s just whoring for shekels. It’s probably a bit of both. In any case, as long as the “usual suspects” and their henchmen (in this case, henchwoman) insist upon defaming the German people with the song that never ends about the event which never happened, I will continue rebutting their rubbish. Hazmat suits on, boys and girls. Into the Marxist Myst of the Zyklon B we go for some badly needed clarification of “The “Wannsee Conference” and its “Final Solution.”

1. Times Berlin correspondent Katrin Bennhold — a beautiful German Frau that (((they))) have totally messed up in the head. / 2 & 3. Many shekels have been raked in by publishing books about the alleged Wannsee Conference.

Waaaahn$ee — Waaaahn$ee — Waaaahn$ee

Bennhold: Eighty years after the infamous Wannsee Conference that meticulously mapped out the Holocaust, the bureaucratic efficiency of it remains as unnerving as ever.
Rebuttal: Whoa! Slow down there Katie! What’s this business about the Holohoax having been “meticulously mapped out” at Wannsee? I’ve studied this issue in depth for years and am still not aware of any documents “meticulously” describing a Jewish genocide. Did I miss something here?

Bennhold: The minutes taken that day and typed up on 15 pages do not explicitly refer to murder.
Rebuttal: They don’t???? But if there is no “explicit” language, then how do you know that the conference was about mass murder?

Bennhold: They use phrases like “evacuation” and “reduction” and “treatment.”
Rebuttal: Oh. I see. It’s like an inference thing. But that means that the actual minutes of the conference were therefore not so “meticulous” after all. Double-think / double-talk much, Katrin?

Bennhold: “You read that protocol, and it’s chilling,” said Deborah E. Lipstadt, a renowned Holocaust scholar.
Rebuttal: Deborah Lipstadt! That vile harridan and tireless persecutor of “Holocaust Deniers?” Mein Gott! That’s your go-to source for these “chilling” inferences, Katie?

Bennhold: (quoting Lipstadt): “It’s all very camouflaged language. But they had very big plans.”
Rebuttal: In other words, the actual words say nothing about genociding the Jews. We must blindly trust “scholars” like Professorette Lipshit to decode the “camouflaged language” — aka “dog whistles” for us.

Bennhold: The anniversary of that fateful meeting …
Rebuttal: So “fateful” — and “chilling” — and “unnerving.” Oh the bloody literary drama with these people!

Bennhold: ….has a special resonance at a time when survivors of the Holocaust are dwindling …..
Analysis: As the last of the “survivors” die out, the Holohoax Card begins to lose more and more of its potency.

Bennhold: …. and antisemitism is resurgent in Europe and the United States, along with attacks targeting Jewish people.
Analysis: I’m calling false flag / crisis acting on these events. Such stunts always are. That’s how (((they))) got my once-best-selling book, The Bad War, banned by Amazon in 2018 — not long after a graffiti attack on a Seattle Jewish synogogue not far from Amazon’s headquarters. Soon after the ban, just for good measure, a pair of Jewish cemeteries in Seattle were also vandalized.

1. For the writer to simultaneously describe the Wannsee plan as “meticulous” and “not explicit” represents a perfect example of what Orwell’s 1984 referred to as “double-think.”  // 2. The vile “scholar” Deborah Lipstadt has been a fanatical advocate for the imprisonment of “Holocaust Deniers” and 90-100 year-old SS men. // 3. The usual suspects are almost always behind the usual vandalism.

Bennhold: The anniversary of the Wannsee Conference stands out as a date to focus on the perpetrators of the Holocaust, documenting the genocidal machinery of the Nazi state.
Analysis: There you go again, Katie — using terms like “meticulous” and “documented” in one breath; and then “not explicit” and “camouflaged language” in the next. Do you even bother to proofread your stuff? Do you have an editor?

Bennhold: The meeting that day laid the groundwork for a machinery of mass murder that would involve the entire state apparatus and ultimately millions of Germans in different roles. “That’s where the bureaucracy fell into place,” Dr. Lipstadt said.
Analysis: Can either of you loony ladies quote for your readers — directly from the Wannsee minutes — the precise lines which “laid the groundwork for a machinery of mass murder?” Hmm?

….. Hello…….. hello. (crickets)

Bennhold:  Only one of 30 copies of the 15-page protocol, marked in red as “secret” on the first page, survived. It was discovered by American soldiers among the files of the Foreign Ministry after the war.
Analysis: How conveeenient — a single remaining copy — discovered (and “translated”) by “American” (Jewish OSS / “Ritchie Boys“) soldiers.

Bennhold:  It was the language of bureaucrats. But there was never any doubt what the document was laying out:
Analysis: To summarize the demented douchebag’s double-talk: “not explicit,” “camouflaged language,” “language of bureaucrats” —– but then, on the other hand, “never any doubt.”

Bennhold:  Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Germany’s current president and a former foreign minister, expressed his profound unease and horror after he read the protocol during a visit to the villa.
Analysis: “Profound unease” — “horror.” Wow Katie. That sho nuff’ sounds pretty nasty. But if it’s only 15 pages long, then surely you must have read the Wannsee Protocol and can quote the really “chilling” and “unnerving” parts to us, no? Why must you rely upon Lipstadt and Steinmeir to school us on how bad the minutes are? We can read.

Bennhold (quoting Steinmeier): “What we see is a smoothly functioning administrative machine, departments coordinating, templates and procedures which — apart from the content of the meeting — are indistinguishable from those that we still have in ministries and administrations. It is the ordinary, the familiar, that jumps out at us, horrifies us and unsettles us.”
Analysis: Well, Herr Steinmeier, Frau Bennhold and Yenta Lipstadt, all of your shock-talk may impress the easily impressed boobs who worship “the paper of record” — but your humble reporter here just went ahead and did something which not 1 in 10,000 Slimes readers would ever even think of doing. Yeah, that’s right. I actually searched for the “camouflaged” Wannsee minutes online; and found them in less than 5 seconds — and read everything in about 10 minutes!

Even putting aside questions about their authenticity * and possible mis-translation — there is nothing in the “chilling” / “unsettling” minutes that even remotely suggests anything other than “relocation” to the East as being “The Final Solution.” And unlike the sneaky slimy “paper of record” — the ANYT encourages its readers to actually read the dubious Waansee minutes for themselves. — HERE

*
Personally — benign as the document is — I don’t believe the “lucky find” of the only surviving copy of the “discovered” Wannsee minutes are even real. The notes just keep repeating “Final Solution” … “Final Solution” …. “Final Solution” — leaving the reader to infer that it must mean extermination. The forgers would not have been bold enough to invent a German document saying straight up: “Vee vill kill every last Jew in Europe.” — It wouldn’t be credible.

1. The myth-makers have created an entire pseudo-academic mythology — complete with flowcharts and “decoding” of “bureaucratic” terms — surrounding the “historic” Wannsee Conference of 1942. // 2. An actual reading of the Wannsee notes (assuming the papers were even legitimate and that the translation was accurate) indicates nothing more than an intention to deport the Jewish population to the East. // 3. Frank-Walter Steinmeier — another traitor to his people.

The Worst Year in World History

Donald Trump / April 2020:

“Even if you go back into 1917, that was the worst of all time, but it was also not as bad as here. It was very bad, it was very rough. It was a bad one, but it wasn’t quite like what we’re going through right now.”
********************************


Released in December 2019, the film titled 1917 was widely acclaimed and decorated with awards — including the Golden Globes awards for Best Motion Picture Drama and Best Director. Not having seen the film, we will refrain from reviewing the story which is set against the ghastly battlefield of  World War I. It’s interesting to note that out of the five individual years  which encompassed “The Great War” (1914-1918) the filmmakers chose the holy year (for many Jews) of 1917 for its title — instead of 1914, 1915, 1916 or 1918. Maybe it’s  just a coincidence — or maybe it’s a message among “their crowd.” Who knows?

But the number does offer us a good “teachable moment”  for explaining the history-altering significance of 1917 — a year that was very good for “the usual suspects” (so good that (((they))) made a museum exhibit in its memory) — yet utterly disastrous for so many millions of “goyim.” We now republish a popular Anti-NY Times piece which originally appeared in one of our 2017 issues.

A FLASHBACK CLASSIC

Herbert Johnson’s anti-immigration cartoon (with “anti-Semitic” overtones) from the era, titled “Make This Flood Control Permanent.”

New York Times: Revisiting 1917, a Year That Reverberates for Jews Around the World

A museum exhibit set to open this weekend at the National Museum of American Jewish History in Philadelphia and later this year at the American Jewish Historical Society in New York will focus on three historic events and their impact on Jews (evidently, no one else really matters). The exhibit titled, “1917: How One Year Changed the World,” will feature America’s entry into World War I, the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and the Balfour Declaration.

Though much of what this particular Slimes article tells of these three events is indeed accurate, the deception lies in what is omitted about this sad centennial. Let’s dive in and see what we mean.

Two major Jewish museums are teaming up to school their flocks on 1917 — but their exhibit leaves out a few details.

Times: The war and the revolution resulted in strict limits on immigration to the United States, reflecting a fear among Americans that unrest in Europe would spread to their country. The restrictions were not overtly aimed at Jews, but because the quotas from countries with high Jewish populations were tightened, fewer Jews were able to settle in the United States.

The Omission: The restrictions were aimed, in large part, at stopping the influx of Anarchists and Communists who had been causing problems in America since the 1880’s. And it just so happened (surprise, surprise) that many of these subversive characters were of a certain ethnic group.

1 & 2 – 1901: President McKinley was murdered by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist son of Polish immigrants // 3. The lovely and gracious Anarchist guru Emma Goldman from Lithuania (Russian Empire) defended Czolgosz’s dirty deed.

Times: After the revolution, when the Bolsheviks came to power, and the xenophobia coalesced together and had the power to influence, that fear accelerated.

The Omission: The genocidal Bolshevik Revolution was a Jewish affair. With the exception of front man Lenin (1/4 jew who spoke Yiddish), a review of the roster of Russia’s leading Bolshevik killers reads like the guest list for a Russian-Jewish Bar Mitzvah — Trotsky(Bronstein)SverdlovDzerzhinskyLitvinov(Wallach)Radek(Sobelsohn)Kamenev(Rosenfeld)Uritsky and many, many more.

The Bolshevik Revolution and subsequent bloodbath were Jewish — no “ifs,” no “ands,” and no “buts” about it!

Times: As the United States was entering the war, there were concerns among Jews over the persecution of those still in Russia and Eastern Europe.

Omission: Apart from the fact that the “persecution” of the chosenites was greatly exaggerated, it is important to note that the Communist movements of the other nations of Eastern Europe were also led by the usual suspects — Bela Kun in Hungary; Max Goldstein in Romania: Rosa Luxemburg in Germany et al. It is understandable that the good Christian people of these nations might come to justifiably resent the Jewish-led drive for a Bolshevik Europe.

Times: Not all Jewish immigrants viewed the United States as a safe haven. A handful of documents highlight the little-known story of Boris Reinstein, who came from Russia and made a career as a druggist in Buffalo. His 1917 application for a passport is on display, as is his 1923 renunciation of his United States citizenship. Mr. Reinstein was a true believer in the Bolshevik Revolution and the Soviet ideology and left his wife, Anna, to return to Russia, where he worked in the Library of the Marx, Lenin and Engels Institute.

Comment: An interesting and useful little truth gem which validates our points of argument. Thanks Times!

Blah-blah-blah…Always soapbox rabble-rousing on behalf of “the people.” Trotsky (Russia), Kun (Hungary) Luxemburg (Germany)

Tiimes: The Balfour Declaration, meanwhile, expressed Britain’s support for a Jewish home in Palestine. For Dr. Perelman and Rachel Lithgow, executive director of the American Jewish Historical Society, one gratifying coup was the loan of two draft versions of the Balfour Declaration from the financier Martin Franklin…This was the text that was forwarded to Lord Balfour and was used as the basis of the Balfour Declaration. Arthur James Balfour, for whom the declaration is named, was Britain’s foreign secretary. The final declaration, in the form of a letter dated Nov. 2, 1917, was sent to one of Britain’s most distinguished Jewish citizens, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild.

Ultimately, it said, in part: “His Majesty’s government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object.” The document also added that “nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.”

Omission: Solid history, but the direct linkage between the Balfour Declaration and America’s entry into World War I is oh-so-conveniently “forgotten” about.

A wealthy New Yorker named Benjamin Freedman, a former aide to Bernard Baruch, later split with his fellow Jewish millionaires and “blew the whistle” on The Balfour Declaration and Zionist treachery in general. Freedman at his finest, from a 1961 speech at the Willard Hotel in Washington:


Let me show what happened while we were all asleep……

World War I broke out in the summer of 1914. … There are few people here my age who remember that. Now that war was waged on one side by Great Britain, France, and Russia; and on the other side by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. What happened?

Within two years, Germany had won that war: not alone won it nominally, but won it actually. The German submarines, which were a surprise to the world, had swept all the convoys from the Atlantic Ocean, and Great Britain stood there without ammunition for her soldiers, stood there with one week’s food supply facing her — and after that, starvation.

At that time, the French army had mutinied. They lost 600,000 of the flower of French youth in the defense of Verdun on the Somme. The Russian army was defecting. They were picking up their toys and going home, they didn’t want to play war anymore, they didn’t like the Czar. And the Italian army had collapsed.

Now Germany — not a shot had been fired on the German soil. Not an enemy soldier had crossed the border into Germany. And yet, here was Germany offering England peace terms. They offered England a negotiated peace on what the lawyers call a status quo ante basis. That means: “Let’s call the war off, and let everything be as it was before the war started.”

Well, England, in the summer of 1916 was considering that. Seriously! They had no choice. It was either accepting this negotiated peace that Germany was magnanimously offering them, or going on with the war and being totally defeated.

While that was going on, the Zionists in Germany, who represented the Zionists from Eastern Europe, went to the British War Cabinet and — I am going to be brief because this is a long story, but I have all the documents to prove any statement that I make if anyone here is curious, or doesn’t believe what I’m saying is at all possible — the Zionists in London went to the British war cabinet and they said: “Look here. You can yet win this war. You don’t have to give up. You don’t have to accept the negotiated peace offered to you now by Germany. You can win this war if the United States will come in as your ally.”

The United States was not in the war at that time. We were fresh; we were young; we were rich; we were powerful. They [Zionists] told England: “We will guarantee to bring the United States into the war as your ally, to fight with you on your side, if you will promise us Palestine after you win the war.”

In other words, they made this deal: “We will get the United States into this war as your ally. The price you must pay us is Palestine after you have won the war and defeated Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey.”

Now England had as much right to promise Palestine to anybody, as the United States would have to promise Japan to Ireland for any reason whatsoever. It’s absolutely absurd that Great Britain — that never had any connection or any interest or any right in what is known as Palestine — should offer it as coin of the realm to pay the Zionists for bringing the United States into the war.

However, they made that promise, in October of 1916. And shortly after that — I don’t know how many here remember it — the United States, which was almost totally pro-German — totally pro-German — because the newspapers here were controlled by Jews, the bankers were Jews, all the media of mass communications in this country were controlled by Jews, and they were pro-German because their people, in the majority of cases came from Germany, and they wanted to see Germany lick the Czar.

The Jews didn’t like the Czar, and they didn’t want Russia to win this war. So the German bankers — the German-Jews — Kuhn Loeb and the other big banking firms in the United States refused to finance France or England to the extent of one dollar. They stood aside and they said: “As long as France and England are tied up with Russia, not one cent!” But they poured money into Germany, they fought with Germany against Russia, trying to lick the Czarist regime.

Now those same Jews, when they saw the possibility of getting Palestine, they went to England and they made this deal. At that time, everything changed, like the traffic light that changes from red to green. Where the newspapers had been all pro-German, where they’d been telling the people of the difficulties that Germany was having fighting Great Britain commercially and in other respects, all of a sudden the Germans were no good. They were villains. They were Huns. They were shooting Red Cross nurses. They were cutting off babies’ hands. And they were no good.

Well, shortly after that, Mr. Wilson declared war on Germany.

The Zionists in London sent these cables to the United States, to Justice Brandeis: “Go to work on President Wilson. We’re getting from England what we want. Now you go to work, and you go to work on President Wilson and get the United States into the war.” And that did happen. That’s how the United States got into the war. We had no more interest in it; we had no more right to be in it than we have to be on the moon tonight instead of in this room.

Now the war — World War One — in which the United States participated had absolutely no reason to be our war. We went in there — we were railroaded into it — if I can be vulgar, we were suckered into — that war merely so that the Zionists of the world could obtain Palestine. Now, that is something that the people in the United States have never been told. They never knew why we went into World War One. Now, what happened?

After we got into the war, the Zionists went to Great Britain and they said: “Well, we performed our part of the agreement. Let’s have something in writing that shows that you are going to keep your bargain and give us Palestine after you win the war.” Because they didn’t know whether the war would last another year or another ten years. So they started to work out a receipt. The receipt took the form of a letter, and it was worded in very cryptic language so that the world at large wouldn’t know what it was all about. And that was called the Balfour Declaration.

The Balfour Declaration was merely Great Britain’s promise to pay the Zionists what they had agreed upon as a consideration for getting the United States into the war. So this great Balfour Declaration, that you hear so much about, is just as phony as a three dollar bill. And I don’t think I could make it more emphatic than that.”

**** End quote ***

Yes indeed. That fateful history-altering year of 1917 was very bad for humanity. But it was very “good for the Jews” — as the popular inside-the-Tribe saying goes — which is why the Jewish museums commemorate that fateful year. And that, dear reader, is some serious REAL history.

* Note: On repeated occasions, Trump has referred to his “war against an invisible enemy” and a “deadly scourge” that hasn’t been this bad “since 1917.” The press continually mocks him for being off by one year on “The Great Pandemic of 1918.” But Trump knows exactly what he is saying.

Vox

The New Yorker

WW II: Operation Barbarossa, the Allied Firebombing of German Cities and Japan’s; Part 2…

Operation Barbarossa, Analysis of Early Fighting

The German-led invasion of the Soviet Union began at 3:15 am, on 22 June 1941, with an enormous artillery barrage along the Nazi-Soviet frontier. The USSR’s hierarchy had counted on it being too late in the year for German forces to attack, despite warnings to the contrary.

Comprising part of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Russian deliveries of commodities to Nazi Germany continued until the final moments; the last trainload arrived into the Reich at 2 am on 22 June, which amused the onlooking German soldiers who were about to advance into the Soviet Union.

During the attack’s opening phase, much went according to plan for the invaders.

Nearly all of the bridges across the vast front were taken by the Germans intact. Many hundreds of Soviet aircraft were either shot down, destroyed on the ground, or fell undamaged into the enemy’s hands. Significant numbers of Soviet troops were on leave, while other Red Army divisions were separated from their artillery when the Wehrmacht swarmed across the border. Many Russian formations were simply overrun, and taken prisoner, before they had an opportunity to form an effective defence. In the first week of the invasion, the Soviet Army saw around 600,000 of its troops either killed, captured or wounded.

A key proponent of the Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) concept, General Heinz Guderian commanding Panzer Group 2, was concerned that the first panzer thrusts were not penetrating deeply enough. His fears seem unfounded; on the fourth day of the invasion, 25 June 1941, Army Group Centre had cut off and encircled two entire Soviet armies east of Bialystok, in north-eastern Poland. On 27 June Army Group Centre reached Minsk, the capital of Soviet Belarus, meaning the German spearhead was closer to Moscow than Berlin.

On 3 July 1941, all Soviet divisions in the Bialystok Bend of the Niemen River had been wiped out. Army Group Centre opened its pincers, and closed them again on the Red Army forces west of Minsk. The German claws snapped shut on 10 July, and in this huge trap 33 Soviet divisions were eliminated, amounting to over 300,000 men. The Russians also lost 4,800 tanks along with 9,400 guns and mortars.

Southward, Gerd von Rundstedt‘s Army Group South attacked the region of Galicia, which covers parts of eastern Poland and western Ukraine. Soviet forces were larger here and they fought superbly well, under the leadership of General Mikhail Kirponos, who would be killed almost three months later near Kiev in a landmine explosion. Army Group South made slow progress at first, not more than six miles per day. However, before June 1941 was out, Field Marshal von Rundstedt’s army had broken into the Ukraine, capturing the cities of Rovno on 28 June and Lvov on 30 June.

Army Group North, commanded by Field Marshal Ritter von Leeb, made initial rapid progress. As part of Panzer Group 4, General Erich von Manstein’s 56th Panzer Corps sliced through Lithuania and, by 25 June, had advanced 155 miles to safely capture the bridge over the Daugava River at Daugavpils, in south-eastern Latvia. Von Manstein was halted here for six days, until the German 16th Army infantry divisions could catch up with him. This delay for Army Group North allowed the Russians to fortify their rearguard. When von Leeb’s advance resumed on 2 July 1941, they met much stiffer resistance.

In the Soviet Army’s central section, their 48-year-old General Andrey Yeremenko, commanding the Soviet Western Front, had instilled new life into the defence. During early July it rained heavily for a brief time, helping further to slow the main German advance. Despite these obstacles, Fedor von Bock’s Army Group Centre captured Vitebsk, in north-eastern Belarus, on 10 July. That same day, Guderian’s panzers managed to cross the Dnieper River, which flows through eastern Belarus and central Ukraine.

On 16 July 1941, Army Group Centre was at the outskirts of the Russian city of Smolensk, 230 miles from Moscow as the crow flies. It meant, in just over three weeks of fighting, that the Germans had advanced more than two-thirds of the way to Moscow. The Wehrmacht’s timetable was running as scheduled. At this period, it seemed that a German victory was inevitable. Already on 15 July, General Hermann Hoth‘s Panzer Group 3 had bypassed Smolensk to the north, and successfully cut the Smolensk-Moscow highway.

Herman Hoff at the center of the image

Yet the USSR did not crumble like past Wehrmacht victims had. On 16 July the German pincers closed around Smolensk, but the encircled Russians fought on for another three weeks, until 7 August. The Germans captured another 300,000 Soviet troops, but their own casualties were not insignificant and they paused for reorganisation. A principal difference between the Nazi invasion of France, and the Soviet Union, was that the landmass was so much bigger in the latter nation, and the distances therefore took longer to navigate. In addition, the French road networks were of superior quality to the Russian road system.

As soon as the Germans halted at Smolensk, Soviet troops launched a vigorous counterattack. Extremely heavy fighting ensued in the Yelnya Bend east of Smolensk, and it continued through August 1941. North of the Smolensk-Moscow highway, the Russians also counterattacked, using for the first occasion one of their secret weapons: the Katyusha rocket launcher which the Germans nicknamed “The Stalin Organ”, due to its melancholy wailing sound as it fired multiple rockets. The Russians had 1,000 Katyusha rocket launchers in service during the second half of 1941.

In mid-August 1941 the German invasion was eight weeks old, the length of time in which Adolf Hitler, his commanders and also the Americans and British expected the USSR to be overthrown. By late summer, the Wehrmacht had conquered a great deal of territory but the leading goal, of annihilating the Soviet armies west of the Dnieper River, had not been accomplished.

Below the Pripet Marshes, von Rundstedt’s Army Group South took the Ukrainian cities of Zhitomir and Uman. In the latter city in central Ukraine, four panzer divisions surrounded and destroyed three Russian armies in the first week of August 1941. Hitler and his Axis ally Benito Mussolinivisited Uman later that month, on 28 August, in order to inspect the Italian expeditionary force and to call on von Rundstedt’s headquarters, which were located in Uman.

Army Group South now marched down the southern side of the Dnieper Bend, and on 18 August 1941 reached Zaporozhye. On 24 August at Zaporozhye, the Russians blew up their Dnieper Dam in order to stall the enemy. Two days later, the city of Dnipropetrovsk fell to the Germans, little more than 40 miles north of Zaporozhye. The Romanian 4th Army, in the meantime, invaded southern Ukraine and encircled Odessa, a city which contained 600,000 residents, a third of them Jewish. The Romanian 4th Army was joined in the Siege of Odessa by the German 11th Army, but Odessa did not capitulate until 16 October 1941.

Progress was not as quick as Army Group North had expected either. In the north-western USSR, the terrain was more suited to defending and the front was shorter, making it easier for the Soviets to hold the Germans up. Red Army divisions in this sector launched counterattacks too but, regardless, Army Group North captured the Russian city of Pskov on 9 July 1941, fewer than 150 miles south-west of Leningrad.

The way appeared open for a march on Leningrad, between Lake Peipus and Lake Ilmen. This route ensured that the Germans could link up with Marshal Gustaf Mannerheim‘s Finnish Army, which was attacking the Russians across the Karelian Isthmus east of Lake Ladoga, Europe’s biggest lake. Hitler stated that, “We Germans only have affection for Finland”, which he said was not the case between the Germans and Italians, only between himself and Mussolini. By now the Axis armies were reinforced with Hungarian, Croatian and Slovenian units.

Von Leeb’s divisions ran into a strong Soviet defensive line, bypassing Lake Ilmen and the Narva River on the Gulf of Finland, which it took Army Group North three weeks to overcome. Army Group North’s advance resumed on 8 August 1941, and though the Russians continued to resist, Novgorod fell on 15 August, one of Russia’s oldest cities.

Towards the end of August 1941, von Leeb’s left wing was within 25 miles of Leningrad. On 29 August the Finns took the town of Viipuri, less than 80 miles north-west of Leningrad. The following day, 30 August, the Germans entered the urban locality of Mga, which contained the last railway line connecting Leningrad to the remainder of Russia.

It looked as if Leningrad was doomed, and while von Leeb’s divisions closed on the famous city, another campaign was unfolding in Arctic Russia. Hitler had decided that he wanted the strategically important Russian port city of Murmansk, over 600 miles north of Leningrad. He dispatched General Eduard Dietl’s Mountain Corps, so as to capture Murmansk by advancing from the Petsamo region of northern Finland. Further south, the German 36th Corps was to sever the Murmansk railway line at the town of Kandalaksha; and further south still, the 3rd Finnish Corps was to cut the rail link at Loukhi.

All three of these German-Finnish operations failed, and Murmansk remained in Soviet hands but it was continually bombed by the Luftwaffe.

Regarding president Franklin Roosevelt’s Lend-Lease program signed into law in March 1941, American equipment entered Murmansk harbour from December 1941. The US military hardware, it should be highlighted, would amount to a small fraction of the matériel Soviet Russia had at its disposal throughout the entire war – the great majority of which was domestically produced by the Russians.

Hardly a scrap of US or British military aid was sent to the Red Army, when the critical fighting was occurring from the late summer to the early winter of 1941. This suggests the Anglo-American powers were quite content to sit back, and watch the Germans and Soviets knock lumps out of each other; while the Americans, in particular, gathered their strength on the sidelines for the conflict they knew they would enter before long.

The Russian historian Evgeniy Spitsyn wrote,

“Out of the almost $46 billion that was spent on all Lend-Lease aid, the US allocated only $9.1 billion, i.e., only a little more than 20% of the funds, to the Red Army, which defeated the vast majority of the divisions from Germany and her military satellites. During that time the British Empire was given more than $30.2 billion, France – $1.4 billion, China – $630 million, and even Latin America (!) received $420 million”.

By the final week of August 1941, von Bock’s Army Group Centre was 185 miles from Moscow. The German High Command (OKH) knew what the next objective should be: the Russian capital, in front of which the bulk of the Red Army was being massed for its defence. OKH issued an order on 18 August for the taking of Moscow, but Hitler instead intervened fatally in the war, believing that he knew more about military affairs than the generals. On 21 August he set Moscow temporarily to one side, and ordered that the Wehrmacht capture various targets including Kiev, Leningrad and the Crimea.

This gave Joseph Stalin time to bolster the Soviet defences in front of Moscow. Army Group South was the main beneficiary of Hitler’s reallocation of German divisions, as Army Group Centre was stripped of four of its five panzer corps and three infantry corps; but even the Army Group South commander, von Rundstedt, felt those forces should have remained in the centre for the drive on Moscow.

Von Rundstedt was requested by Hitler to institute a giant encirclement in the Dnieper Bend around Kiev; with the northern flank of Army Group South co-operating with the southern flank of Army Group Centre.

Germans Surround Kiev and Leningrad

In the second half of August 1941, the German strategic plan in their invasion of the USSR was drastically altered. Most of Army Group Center’s armor was dispatched southward to the Ukraine, with the Wehrmacht’s advance on Moscow postponed temporarily.

By now, the Nazi Security Service was reporting on a “certain unease” and a “decline in the hopeful mood” of the German population. The quick triumph in the east they were assured of by Joseph Goebbels‘ propaganda had not arrived. The anxiety afflicting the German public was increased by letters sent home from Wehrmacht troops, many of which confirmed that the attack on the Soviet Union was not progressing as planned. There were also rising numbers of death notices of German soldiers in the newspapers.

Well-known German author Victor Klemperer, who was Jewish, wrote from Dresden with far-sighted accuracy on 2 September 1941,

“The general question is whether things will be decided in Russia before the wet season in the autumn. It does not look like it… One is counting how many people in the shops say ‘Heil Hitler’ and how many ‘Good day’. ‘Good day’ is apparently increasing”.

Hitler himself “realized that his plans for a Blitzkrieg campaign in the east had failed” by early August 1941, German historian Volker Ullrich wrote in the second part of his biography on Hitler. Two weeks later on 18 August, Hitler said outright to Propaganda Minister Goebbels that he and the German generals had “completely underestimated the might and especially the equipment of the Soviet armies”.

Russian tank numbers, for example, were more than twice greater than Nazi intelligence had originally estimated, and the Red Army itself was much larger than predicted. Seven weeks into the invasion, on 11 August 1941 General Franz Halder, Chief-of-Staff of the German Army High Command (OKH), stated in his diary, “At the start of the war, we anticipated around 200 enemy divisions. But we have already counted 360”.

Yet, as September 1941 began, it seemed quite possible that Hitler was pulling off another telling victory to silence his commanders’ doubts. In dry weather with clear skies overhead Panzer Group 2, led by General Heinz Guderian, captured the northern Ukrainian city of Chernigov on 9 September 1941, just 80 miles north of the capital, Kiev. Guderian’s panzers drove east, thereafter, to take the long Desna Bridge at Novgorod Severskiy.

Colonel-General Ewald von Kleist’s four panzer divisions, belonging to Army Group South, rolled northwards to link up with Guderian’s armor. It was becoming obvious to Soviet military men that the Germans were implementing a gigantic pincers movement, which was aimed at cutting off all of the Russian armies within the Dnieper Bend and, in doing so, surrounding Kiev. The 58-year-old Marshal Semyon Budyonny, leading the Soviet Southwestern and Southern Fronts, could see this clearly. He pleaded in vain with Joseph Stalin to let him retreat to the Donets River.

From early on Stalin had refused to allow Kiev to be abandoned. His prominent commander Georgy Zhukov warned him, as early as 29 July 1941, that the exposed Ukrainian capital should be forsaken for strategic purposes. An angry Stalin replied to Zhukov “How could you hit upon the idea of surrendering Kiev to the enemy?” Zhukov said throughout August that he “continued to urge Stalin to advise such a withdrawal”. On 18 August, Stalin and the Soviet Supreme High Command (Stavka) issued a directive ordering that Kiev must not be surrendered. Stalin could not bear to give up the Soviet Union’s third largest city without a fight.

At the end of August 1941, the Wehrmacht had forced the Red Army back to a defensive line at the Dnieper River. Kiev lay vulnerable at the end of a long salient. Stalin then compounded his original strategic mistake, by reinforcing the area around Kiev with more Red Army divisions.

On 13 September 1941 Major-General Vasily Tupikov, in the Kiev sector, compiled a report outlining how “complete catastrophe was only a couple of days away”. Stalin responded, “Major-General Tupikov sent a panic-ridden dispatch… The situation, on the contrary, requires that commanders at all levels maintain an exceptionally clear head and restraint. No one must give way to panic”.

The following day, 14 September, von Kleist and Guderian’s panzers met at the Ukrainian city of Lokhvytsia, 120 miles east of Kiev. The trap was sealed. Budyonny’s troops fought frantically to extricate themselves but these efforts failed. As also did the Russian attacks coming from further east, which were attempts to rescue the doomed 50 Soviet divisions encircled in the Dnieper Bend.

Kiev fell to the Germans on 19 September 1941, and by the time the fighting died down on 26 September, 665,000 Soviet troops surrendered, the better part of five armies. This was the largest surrender of forces in the field in military history. The Soviets further lost 900 tanks and 3,500 guns. Total Red Army personnel losses in the Kiev area, including casualties, came to 750,000 men. Among the dead was Tupikov who, as mentioned, had tried to warn the Soviet General Staff about the calamity that was set to unfold.

English scholar Geoffrey Roberts wrote, “On 17 September Stavka finally authorized a withdrawal from Kiev, to the eastern bank of the Dnepr. It was too little, too late; the pincers of the German encirclement east of Kiev had already closed”.

After the loss of Kiev, Stalin was “in a trance” according to Zhukov and it understandably took him some days to recover. At this point three months into the Nazi-Soviet war the Red Army had, altogether, lost at least 2,050,000 men, while the Germans had suffered casualties of less than 10% of that number, 185,000 men, the British historian Evan Mawdsley noted. The 185,000 figure still amounted to a higher number of casualties inflicted on the German Army (156,000) in the Battle of France, and the fighting on the Eastern front was of course far from over.

On 23 September 1941 Goebbels visited Hitler at the latter’s military headquarters, the Wolf’s Lair, located near the East Prussian town of Rastenburg. With Kiev having just fallen, Goebbels observed that Hitler looked “healthy” while he was “in an excellent mood and sees the current situation extremely optimistically”.

Hitler took personal credit for taking Kiev, in which he had previously ignored the German commanders’ protests, as they were adamant the advance on Moscow should resume. Hitler told Goebbels that Army Group South would continue marching, in order to capture the USSR’s fourth largest metropolis, Kharkov, in eastern Ukraine, over 250 miles further east of Kiev; and after that they should move on to take Stalingrad, another 385 miles further east again. One of these two goals was reached, with Kharkov falling to the German 6th Army on 24 October 1941. Northwards, Hitler also wanted Leningrad to be utterly subdued, Soviet Russia’s second biggest city.

In his memoirs Marshal Zhukov wrote, “Before the war, Leningrad had a population of 3,103,000 and 3,385,000 counting the suburbs”.

On 8 September 1941 Army Group North had penetrated these suburbs, with the German panzers just 10 miles from the city. So officially began the terrible Siege of Leningrad. During 10 September, Hitler informed lunch guests of his intentions regarding Leningrad, “An example should be made here and the city will disappear from the face of the earth”.

Already on 8 September, the Germans captured the town of Shlisselburg on the south shore of Lake Ladoga. A week later Slutsk (Pavlovsk) fell in Leningrad’s outer suburbs, as too did Strelna, close by to the south-west of Leningrad. To the north, the Finnish Army advanced to within a few miles of Leningrad’s northernmost suburbs and the city was now surrounded.

The German Armed Forces High Command (OKW), with Hitler’s agreement, ordered that Leningrad was not to be taken by storm; but would be bombarded from the air by the Luftwaffe, while the city’s residents were to be starved to death through military blockade. On 12 September 1941 the largest food warehouse in Leningrad, the Badajevski General Store, was blown up by a Nazi bomber aircraft.

Moreover, heavy German weaponry and artillery was ominously lined up on the ground, across Leningrad’s outskirts. The German guns had sufficient range to strike every street and district of the city, meaning that virtually no house or apartment block in Leningrad was safe, a constant terror for its inhabitants.

Following Hitler’s Directive No. 35 of 6 September 1941, Colonel-General Erich Hoepner’s Panzer Group 4 was moved away from the Leningrad region on 15 September. It was transferred to the central front for the renewed march towards Moscow. The halting of the German advance on Leningrad, at a time when it appeared on the cusp of success, meant in the end that the city was not captured at all. The 41st Panzer Corps commander, Georg-Hans Reinhardt, had been confident that Leningrad would be taken. Reinhardt was sketching various routes on a map of Leningrad for the advance into the city, when he was ordered to cease his approach.

Nor was Leningrad fully encircled in wintertime when the water froze on Lake Ladoga, by far Europe’s largest lake. The Russians were soon able to traverse Lake Ladoga with vehicles carrying food and supplies, though they were regularly assaulted by the Luftwaffe. Fortunately, a large proportion of Leningrad’s inhabitants escaped from the city. Zhukov wrote, “As many as 1,743,129, including 414,148 children, were evacuated by decision of the Council of People’s Commissars between June 29, 1941 and March 31, 1943”.

The Germans were never able to regain the momentum in their initial march towards Leningrad. In November 1941 an offensive to join forces with the Finns east of Lake Ladoga failed. Through December the Germans were forced to retreat to the Volkhov River, about 75 miles south of Leningrad. All efforts to destroy the Soviet bridgehead at Oranienbaum, near to the west of Leningrad, were unsuccessful.

Leningrad was helped in its defense by the city’s geographical position, between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga. In comparison to Kiev or Moscow, Leningrad was considerably easier for the Red Army to defend. Leningrad’s western approaches were guarded by the Gulf of Finland, its northern part by the narrow strip of land called the Karelian Isthmus, its south-eastern section by the upper Neva River; while much of the area bordering the city to the south comprised of marshy terrain, which the Germans could not wade through.

Stalin placed even more importance in Leningrad’s survival than Kiev. In a telegram of 29 August 1941 sent to his Foreign Affairs Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, an anxious Stalin wrote, “I fear that Leningrad will be lost by foolish madness and that Leningrad’s divisions risk being taken prisoner”. If the city was captured by Hitler’s forces, it would enable the enemy to make a flanking attack northward on Moscow. The loss of the city that bore Lenin’s name, the founder of Soviet Russia, could only constitute a serious blow to Russian morale and a great triumph for the Nazis. The Soviet Union would be deprived of an important center of arms production were Leningrad taken.

On 10 September 1941, Stalin ordered Stavka to appoint Zhukov as commander of the new Leningrad Front. Zhukov, who possessed great ability and energy, helped to stiffen the defenses around Leningrad, forbidding Soviet officers to sanction retreats without written orders from the military command. By late September 1941, the Leningrad front had stabilized.

More than a million Soviet troops would be killed in the Leningrad region, over the next two and a half years. During that time 640,000 of Leningrad’s inhabitants died of starvation, and another 400,000 lost their lives due to either illnesses, German shelling and air raids, added to those who perished in the course of evacuations, etc.

The Siege of Leningrad was endured mainly by its female residents. Most of Leningrad’s male populace were fighting in the Soviet Army or had joined the People’s Militia, divisions of irregular troops. Leningrad’s heroic resistance helped to tie down a third of the Wehrmacht’s forces in 1941, which assisted in Moscow being saved from German occupation.

Germany’s Advance into Eastern Ukraine and Crimea

By late September 1941, it was becoming clear to much of the watching world that the German-led invasion of the USSR had not unfolded as the Nazis expected. Three months into Operation Barbarossa the Soviet Union’s position was still very serious, however.

At this point the Red Army had suffered at least two million casualties, while the Germans had lost a modest 185,000 men, which gives a firm indication of the Wehrmacht’s superiority over the Soviets, in 1941 at least. In north-western Russia, Leningrad was already surrounded from 8 September 1941 by German-Finnish forces. Leningrad was enduring bombardment from the air and the ground, while its inhabitants were being mercilessly starved by blockade. In the coming winter, as much as 100,000 people in Leningrad would die of hunger each month.

To the south, the Ukrainian capital Kiev had fallen on 19 September 1941 to a German pincers movement; as the Red Army suffered an unprecedented loss of around 750,000 men in the Kiev area, the vast majority of them taken prisoner. With Kiev in German hands Army Group South, led by Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, plunged deeper into Ukrainian territory.

As part of Army Group South the German 11th Army, under its new commander Erich von Manstein, occupied Perekop on 27 September 1941, an urban settlement which connects the Ukrainian mainland to the Crimean peninsula. General von Manstein would become one of the Wehrmacht’s most formidable commanders of the war.

In early October 1941, the German 11th Army proceeded to link up with Ewald von Kleist’s Panzer Group 1, now reinforced and called the 1st Panzer Army. They promptly encircled large elements of two Soviet armies east of Melitopol, a city in south-eastern Ukraine and near the Sea of Azov, a body of water slightly greater in size than Belgium. This encounter was, as a result, titled by the Germans as the Battle of the Sea of Azov, a conflict mostly forgotten today.

Elements of the German 3rd Panzer Army on the road near Pruzhany, June 1941 (Licensed under Public Domain)

As the noose tightened, the German divisions captured over 100,000 Soviet troops beside the Sea of Azov. The Russians lost more than 200 tanks here and almost 800 guns, while the commander of the Soviet 18th Army, General A. K. Smirnov, was killed in action by artillery fire on 8 October 1941. The historian Aleksander A. Maslov wrote of Smirnov, “The Germans who buried the general placed a plywood board on his grave, with an inscription in Russian, German, and Romanian, exhorting their soldiers to fight as bravely as this Soviet soldier”.

With their column of panzers and infantrymen stretching for miles across the horizon, the Germans swept up the coast along the Sea of Azov. The 1st Panzer Army captured Berdiansk, a Ukrainian port city, on 6 October 1941. Two days later, just over 40 miles further east along the shoreline, Mariupol fell, on the north coast of the Sea of Azov. The fighting in this region of south-eastern Ukraine ended on 11 October 1941, with a decisive Wehrmacht victory. British scholar Evan Mawdsley acknowledged that the Battle of the Sea of Azov “was certainly one of the half dozen great Red Army defeats of 1941”.

The Marcks Plan was the original German plan of attack for Operation Barbarossa, as depicted in a US Government study (March 1955). (Licensed under Public Domain)

The advance itself astride the Sea of Azov continued, as the Germans crossed the Ukrainian frontier into south-western Russia. On 17 October 1941, two SS divisions from the 1st Panzer Army reached Taganrog, home to around 200,000 inhabitants. The SS divisions were followed from behind by Wehrmacht soldiers.

The German 11th Army had, meanwhile, marched westwards to join forces with Marshal Ion Antonescu’s Romanian 4th Army, which had surrounded Odessa in southern Ukraine and on the Black Sea. The engagement here revealed some serious flaws in the Romanians’ fighting capabilities, and they were grateful to see the German 11th Army arrive. After two months of stoic opposition, Odessa fell on 16 October 1941 as the Soviet Army retreated from the city.

In following days the Romanian forces, assisted by SS units, would murder tens of thousands of Odessa’s Jewish inhabitants (the Odessa massacre). About half of Odessa’s Jewish population got out of the city in time. Yitzhak Arad, the former Soviet resistance fighter, wrote that “Odessa had the largest Jewish community with a population of over 205,000” and “between 108,000 to 110,000” of these residents “were evacuated”.

Through August and September 1941, the majority of Red Army reserves had been shifted by Joseph Stalin to the crucial Moscow theatre in the center. Von Rundstedt’s Army Group South, in part because of this, made steady progress. Army Group South’s advance was threatening the eastern Ukrainian city of Kharkov, a great industrial center, while under peril too was the Donbass, an important coal-mining area along with Rostov-on-Don, a Russian city considered to be “the gateway to the Caucasus” and its oil fields.

In the drive towards Kharkov, the Soviet Union’s fourth largest metropolis, the German 6th Army captured Sumy on 10 October 1941. The 6th Army was led by Field Marshal Walter von Reichenau, a committed Nazi, and having taken Sumy they were 90 miles from Kharkov. The Jewish Virtual Library (JVL), an encyclopedia detailing Jewish history, outlined that von Reichenau “encouraged his soldiers to commit atrocities against Jews in the territory under his control”.

Kharkov was in a dire position. Not only was the German 6th Army advancing rapidly towards the city, but Kharkov’s population had swollen to over a million people, as Soviet citizens previously fled from other areas to avoid Nazi occupation. Kharkov’s pre-war populace was 840,000, but some estimates state that by September 1941 it almost doubled to 1.5 million.

On 15 October 1941, the Germans took the town of Okhtyrka, just over 60 miles north-west of Kharkov. Twenty-four hours later Bohodukhiv was taken, less than 40 miles from Kharkov. In following days the German 6th Army continued to move forward and, by 20 October, the Soviets completed their evacuation of industrial enterprises from the city. Four days later, on 24 October, von Reichenau’s men entered Kharkov and swiftly captured the city.

Kharkov’s demise came as a considerable blow. It was an industrial stronghold, where the Soviet T-34 tank had been produced at the Kharkov Tank Factory. Von Reichenau, upon inspecting a captured T-34 tank, reportedly said “If the Russians ever produce it on an assembly line we will have lost the war”. He would certainly have been disconcerted to know that, even with the loss of Kharkov, the Soviets built 12,000 T-34 tanks in 1942. Nevertheless, there were fewer than 1,000 T-34s available when the Germans invaded in June 1941; and most of those were destroyed when the really critical fighting was taking place in 1941. With Kharkov subdued, the German 6th Army proceeded to occupy the Donbass in south-eastern Ukraine.

The 1st Panzer Army, supported by the German 17th Army, was marching towards Donetsk (Stalino), 155 miles south of Kharkov. Although the Germans were hampered by supply issues and the start of the autumn rains, they captured Donetsk on 20 October 1941.

By mid-October von Manstein’s 11th Army was free to advance into the Crimean peninsula. Hitler had stated in his 21 August 1941 directive, “The Crimea has colossal importance for the protection of oil supplies from Romania. Therefore, it is necessary to employ all available means, including mobile formations, to force the lower reaches of the Dnepr rapidly before the enemy is able to reinforce his forces”.

In late October 1941, the panzers broke clear into the Crimea with a costly frontal assault. On 1 November the German 11th Army took Simferopol, the Crimea’s second biggest city. On 9 November the Wehrmacht captured Yalta, the southern Crimean resort city, and one of the Soviet Union’s most popular holiday destinations. Stalin held possession of a residence in Yalta and he had vacationed there in the summers.

A week after Yalta fell, on 16 November 1941 the German 11th Army occupied Kerch, a coastal city in eastern Crimea. The Germans had overrun almost all of the Crimea and, in doing so, they destroyed 16 Soviet divisions and captured more than 100,000 Red Army troops. Yet the Crimea’s largest city, Sevastapol, in the peninsula’s far south-west, remained in Russian hands for the time being and was effectively a fortress. Sevastapol was bolstered by the Soviet garrison which had been evacuated from Odessa in October.

The German 6th Army took the Russian city of Kursk on 3 November 1941. Army Group South had now established a line stretching more than 300 miles across, extending along Kursk-Kharkov-Donetsk-Taganrog. Hitler’s attention in this region turned further east again to Rostov-on-Don. Rostov contained over half a million people and lay 245 miles south-west of Stalingrad. The taking of Rostov would enable the Wehrmacht to advance towards the Caucasus and Stalingrad.

Luckily for the Germans, in early November 1941 the heavy Russian rainfall (rasputitsa) stopped, to be replaced by clearer weather and colder conditions. With the presence of light frost, the soil hardened and this allowed the panzers, trucks and motorcycles to shift into gear and move across the ground with relative ease.

The German 3rd Army Corps raced ahead to take Rostov, but Sepp Dietrich’s SS “Adolf Hitler” motorised division entered the city first. Rostov was captured on 21 November 1941. Nearby, the Germans seized intact the railway bridge over the frozen Don River. They were further able to cut the Caucasus oil pipelines, which Soviet Russia was heavily dependent on.

The Russians, correctly discerning the importance of this sector, launched fierce counterattacks across the Don River against the German positions in Rostov. Soviet casualties were severe, as were the German, and they were too heavy for the latter to endure. Field Marshal von Rundstedt, in overall command of all German divisions in the south-western USSR, asked Hitler for permission to retreat from Rostov.

The 65-year-old von Rundstedt was also a very experienced officer, but Hitler refused his request, and the former resigned in protest on 1 December 1941. Von Reichenau, previously the 6th Army commander, replaced von Rundstedt at the head of Army Group South.

Assessing the situation at Rostov, von Reichenau immediately came to the same conclusion as his predecessor: he therefore asked Hitler for authorisation to retire from Rostov. On 2 December 1941, Hitler took a flight from East Prussia to Mariupol, not far from Rostov and just 60 miles from the front line, in an attempt to resolve the problem himself.

Entering a world with driving blizzards and subzero temperatures, this was a far cry from what Hitler was used to at his Wolfsschanze headquarters, sheltered in the dense Masurian woods. Hitler realised the extent of the crisis and gave way to von Reichenau’s arguments. In early December, the Germans relinquished Rostov.

In some confusion, the invaders retreated 30 miles or so westwards, to a winter line behind the Mius River. It was the first major German reverse of the Nazi-Soviet War. Stalin was delighted at these developments and he publicly praised “the victory over the enemy and liberation of Rostov from the German-fascist aggressors”.

The Brutal Conduct of Operation Barbarossa

The method of warfare fought by Hitler’s forces in the Soviet Union would, before long, come back to haunt them. By pursuing a conflict in extreme ideological terms against Russia, it steeled the Red Army’s resolve in overcoming the “fascist hordes” at whatever cost.

Hitler had titled his march eastwards “Operation Barbarossa”, named after King Frederick Barbarossa, a red-bearded Prussian emperor who centuries before had waged war against the Slavs.

In Soviet territory, Hitler demanded his men undertake “war of annihilation” procedures. These murderous assaults eventually rebounded onto the Germans, who were dealt little mercy as they themselves had shown. By indiscriminately targeting Soviet soldiers and civilians, the Nazis were already sowing the seeds of their own defeat, though they did not yet know it.

A proportion of the USSR’s citizens, such as those in the Ukraine, had welcomed the Germans as gallant saviors releasing them at last from Stalin’s iron grip. The July and August 1941 arrival onto Ukrainian lands of Hitler’s young, undefeated foot soldiers – some golden-haired and many bronzed from the glowing sun – had indeed seduced certain Ukrainian civilians.

As German troops pushed deeper into the lush wheatfields of the Ukraine, growing numbers came forth from country homesteads to warmly greet their apparent rescuers. The ancient offering of bread and salt was graciously provided to Nazi infantrymen, as were flowers.

Joseph Goebbels‘ propaganda machine was working away seamlessly too. German officers, standing upon platforms in town squares, were handing out large color posters to civilians of an aristocratic-looking Führer, dressed in full military attire, and staring imperiously across his shoulder into the distance. At the bottom of each poster a caption in Ukrainian read, “Hitler the Liberator”.

To some in the Ukraine that is how it seemed, in the beginning at least. During that long, fateful summer of 1941, as the world watched on in wonder, it looked like nothing would ever stop the Germans in their advance towards Russia’s great cities. From the 22 June attack, after just a week of fighting, the Wehrmacht was already halfway to the capital Moscow. Such news sent Hitler into raptures at his Wolf’s Lair headquarters in East Prussia, whose construction had been completed hours before the invasion.

Towards the end of July 1941, following a month of combat, the Nazis had claimed an area double the size of their own country. It was a scale of victory that would have subdued any other European country.

Before too long, however, the severity of Hitler’s policies would turn the smiling villagers into wary adversaries of the German Reich. Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Hitler’s right arm during the war years, noted that when the dictator firmly set his mind on a decision, he would follow it through to the end. So it would be in this ideological conflict quickly descending into hatred.

Early in 1941, Hitler had said of the impending Russian attack,

“You have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down”.

After more than three months of fighting, Hitler insisted during his Berlin Sportpalast speech of 3 October 1941 that,

“this enemy [Russia] is already broken and will never rise again”.

The Nazi leader further outlined that his soldiers were,

“fighting on a front of gigantic length and against an enemy who, I must say, does not consist of human beings but of animals or beasts. We have now seen what Bolshevism can make of human beings”.

In the Ukraine, Hitler’s war of ruin served only to swell partisan numbers, while sending floods of Ukrainian men to the ranks of Soviet Armies – millions would inevitably join Stalin’s forces. The Nazi enslavement of countless Ukrainians by turning them into medieval laborers also disillusioned the society, while large-scale murders of the Jewish population drew much horror.

Operation Barbarossa Infobox.jpg

Clockwise from top left: German soldiers advance through Northern Russia, German flamethrower team in the Soviet Union, Soviet planes flying over German positions near Moscow, Soviet prisoners of war on the way to German prison camps, Soviet soldiers fire at German positions. (Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0)

Had the invasion been conducted through avoidance of these mass killings, such as in the manner of Germany’s 1940 offensive against France, it may have weakened the Soviet soldiers’ fortitude. Hitler and his followers viewed the French racial composition as of a superior creed, however.

By directing an inhumane warfare in the east, it was impossible for the Nazis to convince local inhabitants theirs was a just motive. Sympathy swept behind the Soviet cause, and even towards Stalin himself, whose Great Purge remained fresh in the memory.

Some short years after the Second World War – across in the Caribbean – a critical factor allowing Cuba’s revolutionary, Fidel Castro, to claim power in the heartland of American dominion was the form of warfare he pursued. Castroite forces avoided the depredations of conflict witnessed elsewhere, such as wanton murder and torture. In turn, this clean conduct of battle diluted the fighting desire of Castro’s opponents, while bolstering his reputation among the Cuban people.

Of Hitler’s troops Castro noted they,

“didn’t let any Bolsheviks escape with their lives, and I really don’t know how the people in the Soviet resistance might have treated the Nazis who fell prisoner. I don’t think they could do what we did [let prisoners go]. If they turned one of those fascists loose, the next day he’d be killing Soviet men, women and children again”.

Castro’s units were battling the soldiers of Fulgencio Batista – a corrupt dictator who since 1952 was sustained mostly by American financial might. Despite the rebels being eternally outnumbered against Batista, by the late 1950s they had gathered crucial momentum.

Castro said his compliance of the laws of war, apart from its ethical aspect, was also,

“a psychological factor of great importance. When an enemy comes to respect and even admire their adversary, you’ve won a psychological victory… I once said to those who accused us of violating human rights, ‘I defy you to find a single case of extra-judicial execution; I defy you to find a single case of torture’… I say to you that no war is ever won through terrorism. It’s that simple, because if you employ terrorism you earn the opposition, hatred and rejection of those whom you need in order to win the war. That’s why we had the support of over 90% of the population in Cuba”.

In the Soviet Union, however, Hitler’s fanaticism failed to recognize the benefits, both moral and emotional, of avoiding arbitrary murder. By engaging in a war of terror, the Nazis delegitimized their purported reason for arriving as “liberators”, which held no basis in reality.

Occasionally, Hitler overcame his ideological mindset by revealing unusual, contradictory viewpoints. On separate instances, he remarked that sections of the Soviet population were racially purer than even that of the Germans.

Even before his attack on Poland, Hitler had said,

“Today the Siberians, the White Russians, and the people of the steppes live extremely healthy lives. For that reason, they are better equipped for development and in the long run biologically superior to the Germans”.

When the war turned in Russia’s favor from early 1943 onward, it was an argument Hitler would put forward with growing consistency.

Previously, in late summer 1940, after the Wehrmacht had routed French armies in the west, Hitler predicted to his generals Wilhelm Keitel and Alfred Jodl that, “a campaign against Russia would be child’s play”.

It was a gross misjudgment of what lay ahead. The triumphs the Nazis had enjoyed, from autumn 1939 to the spring of 1941, cannot have been lost on Hitler as he watched German armies sweep to one easy victory after another. The apparent invulnerability of his soldiers emboldened Hitler, making him reckless and foolhardy. It also set a foundation for complacency.

During Albert Speer‘s time as the German armaments minister (1942-45), he oversaw a hugely productive war economy; however, by 1943, as Germany’s weapons industry soared it was by then too late. Speer lamented that his total war strategies had not been implemented from 1940 – he estimated that, utilizing these policies, the German war machine which attacked Russia could perhaps have been twice larger than it was in 1941.

Almost four million Nazi-led units marched eastwards in June 1941, supported by over 3,000 tanks and up to 5,000 aircraft. The Soviets had much greater numbers of both airplanes and tanks, though many models were at that stage of an inferior quality to their German rivals.

Hitler also allowed himself to be misled by faulty military intelligence underestimating Russian strength; he was swayed too by the Soviets’ dismal performance against Finland in the Winter War of 1939. When it came to defending their own soil, the Red Army would be a different proposition.

While Hitler was disregarding Russian capacities, he had forgotten the woes that befell Napoleon during his 1812 invasion of the motherland. The French emperor attacked Russia on 24 June 1812 with almost 700,000 men, then the largest force in history – as early as mid-October 1812 Napoleon was set in retreat, and by December he had lost about 500,000 soldiers. Siberian conditions gnawed away at French hearts, as the Russians fought bitterly, employing scorched earth tactics.

France’s invasion of Russia was the Napoleonic Wars’ bloodiest battle, a turning point whose outcome weakened French hegemony in Europe, while damaging Napoleon’s once infallible reputation. It was a lesson from history that Hitler failed to heed.

The Battle of Moscow

The heavily decorated panzer commander Hasso von Manteuffel knew Adolf Hitler reasonably well, having met him on numerous occasions from the summer of 1943 until the spring of 1945.

During their discussions, Manteuffel recognised Hitler’s extensive knowledge of military history but, crucially, the German general discerned also the dictator’s shortcomings as a commander. Hitler’s inadequacies in the military domain were hardly surprising, for he was not really a soldier at all, but a politician, who had no formal military education; unlike Manteuffel who was a renowned strategist.

The American historians Samuel W. Mitcham and Gene Mueller, in their co-authored book ‘Hitler’s Commanders’, outlined the following, “Although Manteuffel was impressed with Hitler’s grasp of combat from the field soldier’s point of view, as well as the Fuehrer’s knowledge of military literature, he recognized Hitler’s weaknesses concerning grand strategy and tactical awareness, even though the Fuehrer had a flair for originality and daring. Although he was always respectful, Manteuffel always expressed his own views, regardless of how they might be received by Hitler”.

It is no exaggeration to state that the outcome of World War II rested mostly upon Hitler’s deficiencies as a military leader – and specifically the decisions made, from June to August 1941, relating to grand strategy in the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). The turning point in the war had come over a year before the German defeat at Stalingrad.

Beginning on 22 June 1941 the German-led attack on the USSR, which culminated late that year in the Battle of Moscow, apart from being the most brutal and murderous invasion ever, was by a strategic standpoint deeply flawed. From the start, the Wehrmacht’s invasion force of three million German soldiers was sliced up into three Army Groups, which were ordered to capture a number of difficult targets simultaneously (Leningrad, the Ukraine, Moscow, the Crimea, the Caucasus, etc.).

The most important objective by far was the capital city, Moscow, the Soviet Union’s biggest metropolis. Almost all roads and railways in the western USSR led irresistibly to the gates of Moscow, like spokes directed into the centre of a wheel. If the wheel (Moscow) is put out of action, the rest of the structure cannot function properly. Moscow was the communications hub and power centre of Soviet Russia, where Joseph Stalin and his entourage were headquartered. Stalin himself placed immense store in Moscow’s survival.

Stalin asked his famous general, Georgy Zhukov, late in 1941 “with an aching heart” whether “we will hold Moscow?… Tell me honestly, as a Communist”. General Zhukov replied to Stalin that Moscow will be held “without fail”. Stalin made sure that the road to Moscow was defended whenever possible by large Soviet forces, even when Hitler had turned his attention elsewhere.

Commanded by the 60-year-old Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, Army Group Centre was tasked with capturing the Russian capital. Hitler’s criminal intentions regarding Moscow were clear, as he remarked on the night of 5 July 1941, “Moscow, as the center of the doctrine [Bolshevism], must disappear from the earth’s surface as soon as its riches have been brought to shelter. There’s no question of our collaborating with the Muscovite proletariat”.

From 22 June 1941, had Army Group Centre been directed in a single great thrust towards Moscow, and in doing so protected by Army Group North and Army Group South acting as flank guards, the German Army could well have taken Moscow by the end of August 1941. Top level German commanders like Franz Halder, Heinz Guderian and von Bock recognised Moscow’s importance. Were the capital to fall, the Soviet rail and communications systems would have been shattered. With their centre blown apart, this would have posed enormous difficulties for the Red Army in supplying and bolstering their northern and southern fronts.

German armored column advances on the Moscow front, October 1941 (Licensed under Public Domain)

General Halder stated in a memorandum, of 18 August 1941, that the bulk of the Red Army was being massed in front of Moscow for its defence. If these Soviet divisions were defeated “the Russians would no longer be able to maintain a joined-up defensive front”, Halder wrote.

It is necessary to stress that the Soviet military was not ready for war with Nazi Germany in mid-1941. However, the damage inflicted by Stalin’s purges on the Red Army, from 1937, has routinely been blown out of proportion in the West.

Experienced British scholar Evan Mawdsley, a specialist in Russian history, noted correctly how “The Red Army commanders who were executed were not proven military leaders” in mechanised warfare and “Many able middle-level commanders survived the purges”; but he acknowledged too that “the execution of even a few hundred officers would be a traumatic event in any army” and this “was particularly devastating at the uppermost levels”.

Considerable harm was caused then but it was far from fatal, which events would show, as the Red Army boasted top class commanders such asZhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky and Aleksandr Vasilevsky. The Soviet military reforms were not close to completion by June 1941, debunking the right-wing fantasy that Stalin was then preparing an attack on Germany. Stalin knew that the conflict with Nazism was approaching, but he hoped to put it off until 1942 or later; Stalin’s close associate Vyacheslav Molotov recalled the former saying shortly after the Fall of France, “we would be able to confront the Germans on an equal basis only by 1943”.

The Germans, therefore, had a huge advantage as they attacked an ill-prepared and static Soviet military in June 1941. By the first week of July 1941 for example, nearly 4,000 Soviet aircraft were destroyed, most of them on the ground. Yet with Operation Barbarossa’s strategic design of attacking the entirety of the western USSR at once, the strength of the Nazi blow was ultimately diluted. The Russians were given time to recover, and to their credit they did not collapse like the French the year before.

Two months into the invasion, on 21 August 1941 Hitler compounded the early strategic errors of Barbarossa, by fatefully postponing the advance on Moscow. Mitcham and Mueller describe this decision as “one of the greatest mistakes of the war” as the Soviets’ “most important city [Moscow]” was demoted to secondary stature. Hitler ordered that the Wehrmacht instead take the Crimea, the Donbas and the Caucasus while he also demanded “the investment of Leningrad and the linking up with the Finns”.

Three days before, on 18 August 1941, the German high command (OKH) had issued a request for the capture of Moscow post haste, but Hitler replied that “The army’s suggestion for continuing operations in the east does not conform to my intentions”. It was to the Wehrmacht’s detriment that Hitler, through his force of personality, had succeeded in gaining complete control over all German military operations. With these new orders of 21 August 1941, Nazi Germany’s defeat in the Second World War was assured.

Donald J. Goodspeed, a military historian who had fought against the Nazi empire with the Canadian Army Overseas, wrote of Hitler’s 21 August directive,

“Thus a clear-cut, feasible, and single military objective [capturing Moscow] was set aside, and for it was substituted a double-headed monstrosity. Hitler was greedy and saw too many things at once. Army Group Center was to be halted, immobile, around Smolensk [240 miles west of Moscow], while rich new territories were to be taken in the south and Leningrad was to be eliminated in the north. Nor was it only that a double objective had been substituted for a single one. In the south Hitler wanted the Crimea, the Donbas and the Caucasus; in the north he wanted both Leningrad and the Karelian Isthmus”.

In late August 1941, Army Group Centre was stripped of its armour which was sent south to the Ukraine. The march into the Ukraine did result in a major German victory as its capital Kiev, the USSR’s third largest city, fell to a giant pincers movement on 19 September 1941. Stalin ignored the advice of among others Zhukov, who had sensed impending danger weeks before by warning on 29 July 1941, “the Red Army should withdraw to the east of the Dnepr river”.

Moscow women dig anti-tank trenches around their city in 1941 (Licensed under Public Domain)

Around Kiev by 26 September 1941, no less than 665,000 Soviet troops were caught within the German pincers and taken prisoner, the biggest surrender of forces in military history. The Soviet prisoners of war (POWs) now had to face the horrors of Nazi captivity.

Mawdsley, in his lengthy analysis of the Nazi-Soviet War, wrote that “In terms of scale, the fatalities among Red Army POWs were second only to the mass murder of the European Jews. Although an important part of the charges at the Nuremberg Trials, the story was far less prominent in the Cold War years. A quarter to a third of all the USSR’s 10 million military deaths were soldiers who died in captivity. The exact figure can never be calculated, but the most commonly accepted German figure is 3,300,300 Soviet POWs dying in captivity, some 58% of the 5,700,000 taken prisoner. The Russians accept a lower figure of Red Army POWs, 4,559,000, and 2,500,000 deaths, but with a similar death rate of 55%”.

Dreadful as the loss of Kiev ranked, September was almost gone and the worst of autumn was closing in fast. The German Army, along with its panzer divisions, was weakened by the hundreds of miles they traversed in the Ukraine. Hitler had issued Directive No. 35 on 6 September 1941, belatedly assigning Moscow as the next principal target. When the Wehrmacht’s claws closed around Kiev on 14 September, the German high command began to reinforce Army Group Centre.

Field Marshal von Bock, leading Army Group Centre, would soon have more than 1.5 million men under his command. Despite efficient German staff work, it was 26 September 1941 before final orders could be relayed for the assault on Moscow, and not until six days later did the offensive begin, hopefully titled Operation Typhoon. Hitler’s interference had resulted in a critical six week delay.

On 2 October 1941, as the Battle of Moscow commenced, it seemed to many outside observers that the Germans would yet prevail. The weather, overall, held good for the time being and the countryside was relatively flat and open, suitable terrain for the panzer formations. During the first three weeks of October 1941, an incredible 86 Soviet divisions were destroyed. Army Group Centre captured 663,000 Soviet soldiers and eradicated 1,200 enemy tanks. The English historian, Geoffrey Roberts, wrote that total Soviet personnel losses in the opening phase of October “numbered a million, including nearly 700,000 captured by the Germans”.

Most of the damage done to the Red Army here came in another massive pincers manoeuvre, which the Germans implemented around the medieval Russian towns of Vyazma and Bryansk, 150 miles apart. The northern pincer at Vyazma was the more effective, as five Russian armies were trapped and annihilated by 13 October 1941. The ring was not so tightly held at the southern pincer around Bryansk, where three Russian armies were caught and wiped out.

German soldiers west of Moscow, December 1941 (Licensed under CC BY 3.0)

Roberts highlighted that, “The encirclements were a devastating blow to the Bryansk, Western and Reserve fronts defending the approaches to Moscow”. When the Wehrmacht reached Vyazma on 7 October 1941, they were less than 140 miles from Moscow. On that day, the first snow flurries arrived in western Russia, an ill omen for the lightly-dressed Germans and their Axis allies, such as the Romanians and Italians. The snow was not heavy and quickly disappeared.

On 5 October 1941, the Soviet cause had been given a significant boost, when Stalin telephoned General Zhukov in Leningrad and asked him “can you board a plane and come to Moscow?” Zhukov was being designated with leading the defence of the capital. Zhukov agreed by replying, “I ask for permission to fly out tomorrow morning at da

wn” and Stalin said, “Very well. We await your arrival in Moscow tomorrow”.

For now, there was only so much that Zhukov could do. On 12 October 1941 Army Group Centre stormed the Russian city of Kaluga, 93 miles south-west of Moscow. A week later, 19 October, the Germans occupied the abandoned town of Mozhaysk, just 65 miles west of Moscow. The road apparently lay open and panic started to grip the capital. It is little wonder that Zhukov considered the dates, between the 10th to the 20th of October 1941, as “the most dangerous moment for the Red Army” in the entire war.

The Battle of Moscow, Soviet Counterattack

As the Battle of Moscow began eight decades ago on 2 October 1941, the weeks directly preceding and following this date did not seem to augur well for the Soviet Army. Kiev, the USSR’s third largest city, fell two weeks before on 19 September to a vast German pincers movement, and the Red Army lost a staggering 665,000 troops in the process.

Titled Operation Typhoon, the German plan for the capture of Moscow called for a two-stage battle. In the first phase German Army Group Centre, comprising of almost two million men, would execute a three-pronged attack; with the German 9th Army and Panzer Group 3 advancing to the north between the towns of Vyazma and Rzhev, both 140 miles west of Moscow.

The German 4th Army, and Panzer Group 4, would drive forward along the Roslavl-Moscow road in the centre; and Heinz Guderian’s Panzer Group 2, now called the 2nd Panzer Army, would attack to the south between Bryansk and Orel to the city of Tula, 110 miles southward of Moscow. Operation Typhoon’s second phase envisaged the final advance on the Russian capital, conducted by two armoured encircling thrusts from the north-west and the south-east.

The weather and terrain suited the Wehrmacht, for the time being. In the first three weeks of October 1941, the Germans captured another 663,000 Soviet soldiers and destroyed 1,200 tanks. Including casualties and prisoners taken, total Red Army losses in the opening stage of October amounted to a million troops. In a four week period from 19 September 1941, the Soviets had altogether lost more than 1.6 million men.

Even these terrible reverses did not prove insurmountable to a state whose populace, in 1941, amounted to around 193 million, as opposed to a population in Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe of about 110 million.

On 15 October 1941, Joseph Stalin ordered the majority of Soviet government officials to leave Moscow. They relocated 560 miles further east to the city of Kuibyshev on the Volga river. This indicates that the Soviet leadership was not confident that Moscow could be held. Stalin gloomily informed Harry Hopkins, president Franklin Roosevelt’s personal emissary, that if Moscow was lost “all of Russia west of the Volga would have to be abandoned”. Nevertheless, Stalin remained in Moscow, believing that his continued presence there would maintain morale and prevent widespread unrest among Muscovites, clearly the correct decision.

While the Wehrmacht closed on Moscow, the Red Army’s resistance appeared to be weakening. On 19 October 1941 the Germans took the abandoned town of Mozhaysk, 65 miles west of Moscow. The following day, Stalin declared martial law as the capital was placed under full military control.

Red Army ski troops in Moscow. Still from documentary Moscow Strikes Back, 1942 (Licensed under CC0)

On 23 October 1941 the Germans crossed the Narva river, and were only 40 miles from Moscow. During the next day, however, the famous Russian rainfall (rasputitsa) arrived almost providentially. The Germans were expecting rains to come but the ferocity of it was a shock to them. The unpaved roads and paths quickly turned into rivers of thick, congealed mud. This meant that no wheeled vehicle could move for consecutive days, and the larger panzers advanced at a snail’s pace. The wider-tracked Russian T-34 tanks were more suited to such conditions.

British scholar Evan Mawdsley wrote,

“The defence of Moscow was certainly helped by changes in the weather” and “Unlike the Germans, the Russians had a working railway system behind their front line. Soviet planes were operating from prepared airfields, while the Luftwaffe now had to make do with improvised muddy landing strips”.

By 24 October 1941 as the rains came, the German invasion was four months old (17 weeks) and in serious difficulty. Adolf Hitler had previously expected to conquer the Soviet Union in less than half of that time (8 weeks). When France collapsed the Nazi leader told his military advisers Wilhelm Keitel and Alfred Jodl that “a campaign against Russia would be child’s play”. Field Marshal Keitel, often accused of being a lackey, disagreed and he was opposed to attacking the USSR.

The German High Command (OKH) predicted in mid-December 1940 that “the Soviet Union would be defeated in a campaign not exceeding 8-10 weeks”. Such views were strongly shared by the American and British authorities. Why did these predictions prove so wrong?

We can get to the heart of the matter, by briefly examining German blunders regarding grand strategy and, with it, the most important reason: Hitler’s directive of 21 August 1941, that led to a crucial six week postponement in the march on Moscow (21 August-2 October). This came against the wishes of the Wehrmacht’s leadership, who desperately wanted the advance towards Moscow to continue. By the last week of August, Army Group Centre was 185 miles from Moscow, not a great distance by any means.

The capital city was the USSR’s most important metropolis, its power centre and communications line. Had it fallen in the autumn of 1941, the repercussions would most probably have been fatal for the Soviets.

English historian Andrew Roberts observed, “Moscow was the nodal point of Russia’s north–south transport hub, was the administrative and political capital, was vital for Russian morale and was an important industrial centre in its own right”. As a transportation and administrative hub, Moscow performed a central role in the Red Army’s ability to supply other parts of its front. On 21 August 1941 at his Wolfsschanze headquarters in the East Prussian forests, Hitler put aside one critical objective (Moscow), and substituted it with five targets of lesser importance.

Hitler expounded that they would instead pursue “the capture of the Crimea” and “the industrial and coal mining area of the Donets” along with “the cutting off of Russian oil supplies from the Caucasus” and “the investment of Leningrad and the linking up with the Finns”. When on 22 August Hitler’s orders were forwarded to Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, commanding Army Group Centre and a very experienced officer, he telephoned General Franz Halder and said it was “unfortunate, above all because it placed the attack to the east in question… I want to smash the enemy army and the bulk of this army is opposite my front!”

Von Bock, a monarchist who did not like the Nazis, continued that diverting forces away from the attack on Moscow “will jeopardize the execution of the main operation, namely the destruction of the Russian armed forces before winter”. Halder, a key planner in Operation Barbarossa’s original design, agreed with him. Two days later on 24 August 1941 von Bock reiterated, “They apparently do not wish to exploit under any circumstances the opportunity decisively to defeat the Russians before winter!”

One can note the normally dour von Bock’s use of exclamation marks, as he believes the chance for victory has been taken away from him. Insult was added to injury, as von Bock was compelled to release four of his five panzer corps, and three infantry corps, for the southward and northwards assaults on the Ukraine and Leningrad. Halder felt that Hitler’s directive of 21 August “was decisive to the outcome of this campaign”.

For reasons of megalomania, Hitler had overruled his military commanders on a pivotal military issue. American historians Samuel W. Mitcham and Gene Mueller summarised that Hitler’s 21 August directive “was one of the greatest mistakes of the war”. It came on top of the opening strategic errors of 22 June 1941, when the Wehrmacht attacked all of the western USSR simultaneously, ultimately weakening the Nazi blow. Fortunately, the Third Reich’s leadership was strategically inept.

In late August 1941, the German Armed Forces High Command (OKW) were contemplating that the war in the east would drag on until 1942. An early knockout strike had not materialised, and the Soviet Army was fighting with tenacity; while the Russians possessed military hardware of a high standard, like the Katyusha rocket launcher (Stalin’s Organ) and the T-34 tank, which came as a real surprise to the Germans.

An OKW memorandum from 27 August ran, “if it proves impossible to realise this objective completely [the USSR’s destruction] during 1941, the continuation of the eastern campaign has top priority for 1942”. Hitler approved the memo, which suggests that he was starting to think the invasion may not be successfully concluded in 1941. Hitler certainly believed this by November of that year.

The Soviet cause was given a major lift when, on 10 October 1941, Stalin officially granted General Georgy Zhukov the leadership over the majority of Red Army divisions (the Western Front and Reserve Front) for the capital’s defence. The 44-year-old Zhukov was an extremely able, energetic, self-confident and ruthless commander, just the sort of man that was needed.

Zhukov pursued a policy of initiating incessant counterattacks, and then withdrawing at the final moment. These tactics succeeded in wearing down the belated German march on Moscow. More than any other soldier in the war, Zhukov would play a leading part in the Nazis’ demise. Andrei Gromyko, a prominent Soviet diplomat, wrote that Zhukov was “the jewel in the crown of the Soviet people’s greatest victory”.

At the beginning of November 1941 victory was not yet assured, for the rains disappeared and frost set in. The ground had hardened enough for the panzers to begin rolling again. These colder temperatures were uncomfortable for the German troops, who incredibly were still not supplied with sufficient winter clothing, but the temperature hovered around zero for now and was not unbearable.

In preceding weeks, the Kremlin received intelligence reports from their spy in Tokyo, Dr. Richard Sorge, and also from Soviet agencies, which stated that Imperial Japan was not preparing an immediate attack on the eastern USSR. This time Stalin believed the intelligence accounts and, in the first fortnight of November 1941, he transferred 21 fresh divisions from Siberia and Central Asia to the Moscow front.

The Germans had no such reserve of men to call upon. On the night of 11 November 1941, the temperature dropped suddenly to minus 20 degrees Celsius. Frostbite cases were becoming common among German soldiers, but the Wehrmacht resumed advancing from 15 November. A week later, on 22 November the medieval town of Klin fell, 52 miles north-west of Moscow.

The following day, Panzer Group 4 took Solnechnogorsk, 38 miles from Moscow. On 27 November the 7th Panzer Division established a bridgehead across the Moscow-Volga Canal. Also during 27 November, the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich captured the town of Istra, just 31 miles west of Moscow.

German professor Jörg Ganzenmüller wrote that Hitler now formulated “a special order”, which was sent to SS major Otto Skorzeny of the Das Reich division. Hitler demanded that Skorzeny and his men occupy the locks of the reservoir on the Moscow-Volga canal, and then open the locks so as to “drown” Moscow by turning it into a massive artificial lake. These orders were obviously never carried out, due to Skorzeny’s unit being unable to advance much further.

In late November 1941, it was apparent that the German offensive would likely fail. As of 26 November, the Germans had lost 743,112 men on the Eastern front. This number does not include frostbite casualties and other soldiers absent due to illness.

Because of ongoing Russian resistance and their fresh resources – which in both cases had been much greater than the Germans anticipated – General Guderian’s panzers had failed to reach the city of Tula, just over 100 miles south of Moscow. Panzer Group 3, which captured the line of the Moscow-Volga Canal on 28 November, could attack no further; and while a division from Panzer Group 4 had proceeded to within 18 miles of Moscow, continued progress for them proved impossible.

On 2 December 1941, a motorcycle reconnaissance unit of the 2nd Panzer Division reached the suburb of Khimki, five miles from Moscow and nine miles from the Kremlin. Isolated, it did not remain for long in this forward position. That was as close as the Germans ever got to the spires of Moscow.

On the night of 4 December, the temperature plummeted again to minus 31 degrees Celsius. Twenty four hours later, it sank to minus 36 degrees. It was clear that Operation Barbarossa had failed and worse was in store for the Germans. If they could not accomplish the USSR’s overthrow in 1941, they could hardly expect to do so in a weaker condition in 1942.

The writing was on the wall on 5 December 1941, as the Soviet Army counterattacked the static and precariously positioned Germans, by striking Panzer Group 3 near the Moscow-Volga Canal, along with the German 9th Army at the city of Kalinin. The next day, 6 December, General Zhukov’s divisions launched an assault on the 2nd Panzer Army south of Moscow, with both sides suffering serious losses. Yet Zhukov prevailed by forcing the 2nd Panzer Army to retreat over 50 miles.

Field Marshal von Bock, irate at these setbacks, wrote in his diary, “Last August, the road to Moscow was open; we could have entered the Bolshevik capital in triumph and in summery weather. The high military leadership of the Fatherland made a terrible mistake, when it forced my Army Group to adopt a position of defence last August. Now all of us are paying for that mistake”.

In winter weather, the Soviets were a superior fighting force in comparison to the enemy. Soviet divisions were better equipped and had much more experience of adverse conditions. Stalin said shortly after the Red Army subdued Finland in March 1940, “It is not true that the army’s fighting capacity decreases in wintertime. All the Russian Army’s major victories were won in wintertime… We are a northern country”.

With the Soviets continually counterattacking, one must give the Germans substantial credit for managing somehow to avoid a total collapse, which is what had befallen Napoleon’s army in Russia in late 1812. Hitler refused to allow a general retreat, as he ordered on 16 December 1941 that each German soldier display “fanatical resistance”.

By the end of December 1941, the Russians had advanced 100 to 150 miles across a broad front. The Red Army did not achieve a truly decisive breakthrough and the fighting would continue into 1942, and indeed well beyond that.

To Be Continue….

WW II: Operation Barbarossa, the Allied Firebombing of German Cities and Japan’s; Part 1…

Operation Barbarossa. Did Stalin Foresee Hitler’s Invasion?

In attacking eastwards from June 1941 the Nazis intended to annex the Ukraine, all of European Russia, the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, while establishing a satellite Finnish nation to the north-east. A greatly enlarged Germany would thus be created, serving as a homeland for hundreds of millions of those belonging to the so-called Germanic and Nordic races. As envisaged by Nazi planners, this expansion would provide the economic base to sustain the thousand year Reich.

According to Adolf Hitler’s Directive No. 18 issued on 12 November 1940, the goal of his eastern invasion was to occupy and hold a line from Archangel, in the far north-west of Russia, to Astrakhan, almost 1,300 miles southward; further conquering Leningrad, Moscow, the Donbas, Kuban (in southern Russia) and the Caucasus.

Nothing was mentioned as to what the Germans would do, once the Archangel-Astrakhan line had been reached. The Wehrmacht’s objective was, however, to annihilate the Soviet forces in western Russia through massive armoured spearheads and encirclements, thereby preventing the Red Army’s withdrawal further east.

It should be stated, firstly, that the USSR had no plans in 1940 or 1941 to attack Nazi Germany; nor did the Soviets hold ambitions to sweep across all of mainland Europe in a war of conquest. There really was no need for the world’s largest state to take control of other vast continents.

David Glantz, the US military historian and retired colonel, realised that Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin’s position in 1941 was that of a defensive one. Glantz wrote how, “Stalin was guilty of wishful thinking, of hoping to delay war for at least another year, in order to complete the reorganization of his armed forces. He worked at a fever pitch throughout the spring of 1941, trying desperately to improve the Soviet Union’s defensive posture while seeking to delay the inevitable confrontation”.

Glantz’ views are supported by other experienced historians like England’s Antony Beevor. He observed that “the Red Army was simply not in a state to launch a major offensive in the summer of 1941”; but Beevor did not entirely exclude the possibility that Stalin “may have been considering a preventive attack in the winter of 1941, or more probably in 1942, when the Red Army would be better trained and equipped”.

Was the Soviet leadership aware of the threat that Hitler posed to their state?; and which was gradually developing around them like a dark cloud. Early in July 1940 a report compiled by the Soviet intelligence agency, the NKGB, was sent to the Kremlin. It revealed that the Third Reich’s General Staff had requested Germany’s Transport Ministry to furnish details, regarding rail capacities for Wehrmacht soldiers to be shifted from west to east. It constituted the first hint of what lay ahead. This was the period, in the high summer of 1940, when serious discussions started between Hitler and his generals, relating to an attack on Russia.

As early as 31 July 1940 the German planning for an invasion of the Soviet Union “was in full swing”, as noted by US author Harrison E. Salisbury. Earlier in July Hitler had initially pondered attacking Russia in the autumn of 1940 but, by late July, he concluded it was too late in the year with poor weather fast approaching.

There is little indication that Stalin, or high-ranking Soviet officials, were at all worried by the first warning signals they received through intelligence about Nazi intentions. During early August 1940, the British obtained information suggesting Hitler was planning to destroy Russia, and London passed on their findings to Moscow. Stalin ignored them as he strongly distrusted the British, not without some reason. This was based in part on Stalin’s recent experiences in dealing with Conservative governments who were, to put it kindly, of an unfriendly disposition towards the Soviet Union.

London and Paris refused to sign a pact with the Kremlin in the spring and summer of 1939 – which would have aligned the British, French and Russians against Nazi Germany. Stalin had no choice but to then finalize an agreement with Hitler that autumn, and these unwanted realities have since been suppressed by institutions like the German-led European Union.

The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 23 August 1939 had served the Soviets well, until the Wehrmacht swiftly routed France from May to June 1940. The manner of the French defeat astonished and disturbed Stalin, who was expecting a long, drawn-out conflict in the west, as in the First World War.

Yet Stalin’s agreement with Hitler had kept Russia out of the heavy fighting for now, while the Kremlin made territorial gains by taking over the eastern half of Poland, on 6 October 1939. With the end of the Winter War against Finland, the Soviets absorbed around 10% of Finnish land in March 1940. At the beginning of August 1940 Stalin officially annexed the Baltic nations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, having first occupied those states in mid-June 1940, which resulted in pro-German officials fleeing the region. Stalin’s march into the Baltic came as a response to the Nazi triumphs on the western front, and his understandable fear of Baltic nationalism and possible German penetration near Soviet frontiers.

Basil Liddell Hart, the retired British Army captain and military theorist wrote, “Hitler had agreed that the Baltic states should be within the Soviet Union’s sphere of influence, not to their actual occupation; and he felt that he had been tricked by his partner; although most of his advisers realistically considered the Russian move into the Baltic states to be a natural precaution, inspired by fear of what Hitler might attempt after his victory in the west”.

During the days after the Fall of France, Stalin occupied the Romanian territories of Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia. Until World War I, Bessarabia had belonged to the Russian Empire for about a century, but Northern Bukovina never before comprised part of Russia. In the eyes of Hitler and German generals, Stalin’s advance into parts of northern Romania was dangerous and provocative. Hitler first learnt of Stalin’s plan to reincorporate Bessarabia on 23 June 1940, when just after sunrise the Nazi leader was victoriously touring Paris in an open topped vehicle. Hitler became irritated when he heard the news. He felt that Bessarabia’s return to Russia would bring Stalin intolerably close to the Axis oil wells, at the city of Ploesti in southern Romania.

During a meeting with Benito Mussolini in the Bavarian Alps on 19 January 1941, Hitler told his Italian counterpart, “now in the age of airpower, the Romanian oil fields can be turned into an expanse of smoking debris by air attack from Russia and the Mediterranean, and the life of the Axis depends on these oil fields”.

Over the course of World War II, Ploesti’s wells furnished the Nazi empire with at least 35% of its entire oil, other accounts state as much as 60%; but the latter figure is most likely excessive and above the overall average. For many years Romania was Europe’s largest oil producing country by far, and the fifth biggest on earth in 1941 and 1942, having overtaken Mexico. The significant oil sources in Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) fell under Axis control in early 1942, when that country was overrun by Japanese armies, and they would remain there for over three years.

Hitler wanted his Romanian oil fields to be formidably defended; he ordered the Wehrmacht to place scores of heavy and medium German anti-aircraft guns around the Ploesti refineries, and that smoke screens also be deployed; the latter were effective at obscuring the installations from enemy planes, which were shot down in large numbers.

The Germans created limited quantities of oil from synthetic hydrogenation processes, involving materials like coal. This mostly benefited the Luftwaffe, not so much the panzers and other ground vehicles. The terms of the non-aggression deal with Russia ensured the Reich received in total 900,000 tons of Soviet oil, from September 1939 to June 1941. This was not a huge amount, considering the Wehrmacht consumed three million tons of oil in 1940 alone.

Nazi Germany was also supplied with oil by the United States, then unrivalled as the world’s biggest oil producer and exporter; specifically the dealings that American corporations like Texaco and Standard Oil conducted with the Nazis, sometimes secretly through other countries, along with US-controlled subsidiaries based in the Reich. In addition, arriving from the globe’s third largest oil manufacturing state, Venezuela, then a major US client, came shipments of petroleum sent across the Atlantic, destined for the German war machine.

Altogether “around 150 American companies” had “business links to Nazi Germany”, the Israeli journalist Ofer Aderet outlined, writing for the left-leaning newspaper Haaretz. US business deals with the Nazis, Aderet wrote, “included huge loans, large investments, cartel agreements, the construction of plants in Germany as part of the Third Reich’s rearmament, and the supply of massive amounts of war matériel.

Meanwhile, Stalin’s reintegration of Bessarabia in early July 1940 was providing a buffer to the Soviet defence of its navy, in the Black Sea slightly further east; including added security to Russian naval bases, such at the port of Odessa in southern Ukraine. The Soviet advance into Romania “was worse than ‘a slap in the face’ for Hitler”, Liddell Hart observed as “it placed the Russians ominously close to the Romanian oil fields on which he counted for his own supply”. On 29 July 1940 Hitler spoke to his Chief-of-Operations, General Alfred Jodl, about the potential of fighting Russia if Stalin attempted to seize Ploesti.

On 9 August 1940 General Jodl issued a directive titled “Reconstruction East”, ordering that German transport and supplies be bolstered in the east, so that plans would be cemented by the spring of 1941 for an attack on Russia. It was at this time that Winston Churchill’s government began warning Moscow of the German invasion plans; but Stalin strongly suspected that the British wanted to drag him into the war, just to take the pressure off London. Stalin certainly believed that Soviet armies would have to fight the Germans some day, but not just yet.

Soviet designs towards Germany remained non-threatening. On 1 August 1940 the Soviet Union’s foreign minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, said that the Nazi-Soviet Pact was centred not on “fortuitous considerations of a transient nature, but on the fundamental political interests of both countries”. Nevertheless by September 1940, Soviet commanders stationed along their western frontier began talking about Hitler’s “Drang nach Osten”, meaning the dictator’s proposal for eastward expansion. Soviet military men spoke about Hitler’s habit of carrying around a picture of Frederick Barbarossa, the red-bearded Prussian emperor who centuries before had waged war against the Slavs.

On 12 November 1940 foreign minister Molotov, a staunch communist, landed in Germany by aircraft. Upon Molotov’s arrival in Berlin, Stalin told him to indicate to the Germans that he wanted a wide-ranging deal with them. Stalin still thought a partnership with Hitler into the near future was attainable. Instead, during the talks Nazi officials presented to Molotov a junior partnership for Soviet Russia, in a German-dominated global alliance. Soviet policy, as the Nazis insisted, was to be focused on south Asia, towards India, and a conflict with Britain. This did not satisfy Stalin at all.

Following Molotov’s dispatching of the report on his disappointing discussions in Berlin, according to Yakov Chadaev, a Soviet administrator, Stalin was certain that Hitler intended to wage war on Russia. Less than two weeks later, on 25 November 1940 Stalin informed the Bulgarian communist politician Georgi Dimitrov “our relations with Germany are polite on the surface, but there is serious friction between us”.

Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, a top level Russian officer who repeatedly met with Stalin, had accompanied Molotov to Berlin. Vasilevsky returned home convinced that Hitler would invade the Soviet Union. Vasilevsky’s opinion was shared by many of his Red Army colleagues. After Molotov had left Berlin, Hitler met German executives and made it clear to them that he was going to attack Russia.

In the autumn of 1940 draft plans for the strategic positioning of Soviet divisions along their western frontier, in preparation for a German invasion, were sent to the Kremlin by the Russian High Command. Stalin did not respond. Rather ominously, in the second half of November 1940 the central European countries of Hungary, Slovakia and Romania all joined Hitler’s new European order, by signing up to the Axis coalition. Hitler could now depend especially on the support of Romania, under Ion Antonescu. He was a fervently anti-communist and anti-Semitic military dictator, who at age 58 had come to power on 4 September 1940.

Romania is by no means a leading nation today, but during the war years it was indeed an important country. This was mostly due to her natural resources and to a lesser extent its strategic location, beside the Black Sea and the Ukraine.

Stalin was growing slightly concerned as 1940 reached its end. Addressing Soviet generals before Christmas, Stalin referenced passages from Hitler’s book ‘Mein Kampf’, and he spoke of the Nazi leader’s stated goal of attacking the USSR some day. Stalin said “we will try to delay the war for two years”, until December 1942 or into 1943. Shortly after the Wehrmacht’s crushing of the French, Molotov recalled him saying, “we would be able to confront the Germans on an equal basis only by 1943”.

On 18 December 1940 Hitler released his Directive No. 21 outlining, “The German armed forces must be prepared to crush Soviet Russia in a quick campaign, before the end of the war against England”. On Christmas Day 1940, the Soviet military attaché in Berlin received an anonymous letter. It expounded that the Germans were preparing a military operation against Russia, for the spring of 1941.

By 29 December 1940 Soviet intelligence agencies had possession of the basic facts regarding Operation Barbarossa, its design and planned start date. In late January 1941 the Japanese military diplomat Yamaguchi, returning to the Russian capital from Berlin, said to a member of the Soviet naval diplomatic service, “I do not exclude the possibility of conflict between Berlin and Moscow”.

Yamaguchi’s remark was forwarded on 30 January 1941 to Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, a prominent Soviet officer who knew Stalin personally. Even before late January 1941, the Soviet Defence Commissariat was concerned enough to draft a general directive to the Russian border commands and fleets, which for the first time would name Germany as the probable enemy in coming war.

In early February 1941, the Soviet Naval Commissariat started receiving almost daily accounts, about the arrival of German Army specialists in Bulgarian ports; and preparations for the installment of German coastal armaments there. This information was relayed to Stalin on 7 February 1941. In fact, other senior figures such as Marshal Filipp Golikov, the chief of intelligence for the USSR’s General Staff, said that all Soviet reports on German planning were forwarded to Stalin himself.

As Molotov was about to make his way to Berlin the previous November, Stalin stressed to him that Bulgaria is “the most important question of the negotiations” and should be placed in the Soviet realm. On 1 March 1941 Bulgaria instead joined the Axis. In early February 1941, the Russian command in Leningrad reported German troop movements in Finland. This was no laughing matter as Finland shares an eastern border with Russia.

The Kremlin could not count on Finnish loyalty in the event of a German attack. Finland’s Commander-in-Chief Gustaf Mannerheim, in his mid-70s and an anti-Bolshevik, had been closely acquainted with the deposed Russian Tsar Nicholas II. Mannerheim previously kept a portrait of the Tsar and said, “He was my emperor”. The Finns were far from grateful when the Soviet military rolled into their country in November 1939, without a declaration of war. In February 1941 the Leningrad Command reported German conversations with Sweden, pertaining to the transit of Wehrmacht troops through Swedish land.

The Soviet political administration wanted to emphasize awareness to the Red Army, to be prepared for engagement. Stalin rejected this approach, because he was afraid it would appear to Hitler that he was gathering forces to start an offensive against Germany. Stalin warned General Georgy Zhukov that “Mobilisation means war”, and he did not want to risk a conflict with Germany in 1941.

On 15 February 1941, a German typist entered the Soviet consulate in Berlin. He brought with him a German-Russian phrase book, which was being published in his printing shop in extra large edition – included in it were such phrases as, “Are you a Communist?”, “Hands up or I’ll shoot” and “Surrender”. The ramifications were clear enough. Around this time, Russian State Security acquired reliable intelligence stating that the German invasion of Britain was suspended indefinitely, until Russia was defeated.

In late February and early March 1941, German reconnaissance flights were taking place over the Baltic states under Russian control. These were severe infringements into the Soviet zone. The appearance of Nazi planes became frequent over the coastal city of Libau, in western Latvia, above the Estonian capital Tallinn, and over Estonia’s largest island Saaremaa.

Russian Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov, who intensely disliked the fascist states, granted the Soviet Baltic fleet authority to open fire on German aircraft. On 17 and 18 March 1941, Luftwaffe planes were spotted over Libau and promptly shot at by Soviet personnel. Nazi aircraft were then sighted near the city of Odessa, on the Black Sea. Admiral Kuznetsov was summoned to the Kremlin by Stalin, where he found him with the police chief Lavrentiy Beria. Stalin reprimanded Kuznetsov for giving the order to shoot at German planes, and he expressly forbid Soviet units to do so again.

Hitler’s Secret Directive 18

After the failed November 1940 discussions in Berlin, of the Soviet Union’s foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, both he and his leader Joseph Stalin occasionally remarked that Nazi Germany was no longer so prompt in fulfilling its obligations to Moscow. This was relating to the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, of 23 August 1939, an agreement which was meant to last for 10 years. Stalin and Molotov did not attribute much significance to the slacking off in Berlin’s punctuality, as the delivery of German goods and technology to Soviet Russia increasingly did not appear on schedule.

Unknown to Stalin and Molotov, on the very day the Soviet foreign minister had landed in Berlin for talks, 12 November 1940, Adolf Hitler secretly issued Directive No. 18. It outlined the planned German invasion of the USSR, including the envisaged conquest of major cities like Kiev, Kharkov, Leningrad and Moscow. On 18 December 1940 Führer Directive No. 21 was completed, which stated that the Wehrmacht’s attack on the Soviet Union should proceed in mid-May 1941.

For Russia, as 1941 advanced beyond its opening weeks, the warning signs about the German threat were becoming difficult to overlook. False reports were featured in the Nazi press about “military preparations” being made across the border in the Soviet camp. The same German media tactics had preceded Hitler’s invasions of Czechoslovakia and Poland.

On 23 February 1941, the Soviet Defence Commissariat published a decree stating that Nazi Germany was the next likely enemy. Soviet frontier areas were requested to make the necessary preparations to repel the attack, but the Kremlin did not respond.

On 22 March 1941, the Russian intelligence agency NKGB obtained what it believed to be solid material that “Hitler has given secret instructions to suspend the fulfillment of orders for the Soviet Union”, regarding shipments tied to the Nazi-Soviet Pact. For example the Czech Skoda plant, under Nazi control, had been ordered to halt deliveries to Russia. On 25 March 1941 the NKGB produced a special report, expounding that the Germans had amassed 120 divisions beside the Soviet border.

For months there were concerning cables coming from the Russian military attaché in Nazi-occupied France, General Ivan Susloparov. The German authorities had curtailed Soviet embassy duties in France, and in February 1941 the Russian embassy was moved from Paris southwards to Vichy, in central France. Only a Soviet consulate was left in Paris.

Image on the right: OKH commander Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch and Hitler study maps during the early days of Hitler’s Russian Campaign (Public Domain)

During April 1941, General Susloparov informed Moscow that the Germans would attack Russia in late May 1941. Slightly later on, he explained it had been delayed for a month due to bad weather. At the end of April, General Susloparov collected further information about the German invasion through colleagues from Yugoslavia, America, China, Turkey and Bulgaria. This intelligence was forwarded to Moscow by mid-May 1941.

Again in April 1941, a Czech agent reported that the Wehrmacht was going to execute military operations against the Soviet Union. The report was sent to Stalin, who became angry when he read it and replied, “This informant is an English provocateur. Find out who is making this provocation and punish him”.

On 10 April 1941 Stalin and Molotov were given a summary by the NKGB, about a meeting that Hitler had with Prince Paul of Yugoslavia at the Berghof, in early March 1941. Hitler was described as telling Prince Paul he would begin his invasion of Russia in late June 1941. Stalin’s response to the alarming reports, such as this, was one of appeasement of Hitler, though a similar strategy had failed for the Western powers.

Remarkably, through April 1941 Stalin increased the volume of shipments of Russian supplies to the Third Reich, amounting to: 208,000 tons of grain, 90,000 tons of oil, 6,340 tons of metal, etc. Much of these essentials would be used by the Nazis in their attack on Russia.

Marshal Filipp Golikov, head of intelligence for the USSR’s General Staff, insisted that all Soviet reports relating to Nazi plans were forwarded directly to Stalin. Other accounts informing Moscow about an impending Wehrmacht invasion came from abroad too. As early as January 1941 Sumner Welles, an influential US government official, warned the Soviet Ambassador to America, Konstantin Umansky, that Washington had information showing Germany would engage in war against Russia, by the spring of 1941.

During the final week of March 1941 US Army cryptanalysts, experts at deciphering codes, started producing obvious indications of a German relocation to the east. This material was relayed to the Soviets. America’s cryptographers had cracked Japanese codes in the second half of 1940; including the Purple Cipher, Japan’s highest diplomatic code, which ensured that the Franklin Roosevelt government was uniquely well informed of Tokyo’s intentions.

The US commercial attaché in Berlin, Sam E. Woods, came into contact with high-level German staff officers opposed to the Nazi regime. They were aware of the planning for Operation Barbarossa. Woods was in a position to discreetly observe the German preparations from July 1940, until December of that year. Woods sent his findings to Washington. President Roosevelt agreed that the Kremlin should be told of these developments. On 20 March 1941, Welles once more saw Soviet Ambassador Umansky and forwarded the news.

Russia’s embassy in Berlin noticed that the Nazi press was reprinting passages from Hitler’s 1925 book ‘Mein Kampf’. The paragraphs in question were about his proposal for “lebensraum”, German enlargement at the Soviet Union’s expense.

The Russians had a formidable espionage agent, Richard Sorge, operating in Tokyo since 1933, the year that Hitler took power in Germany. Sorge, a German citizen and committed communist, established an especially close relationship with the imprudent Nazi ambassador to Japan, General Eugen Ott. The data Sorge received was not always 100% accurate, but it allowed him access to the most confidential and up to date German plans.

On 5 March 1941, Sorge dispatched to the Soviets a microfilm of a German telegram sent by the foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, to the German ambassador Ott – and which outlined that the Wehrmacht attack on Russia would fall in mid-June 1941. On 15 May, Sorge reported to Moscow that the German invasion would start somewhere between 20 to 22 of June. A few days later on 19 May Sorge cabled, “Against the Soviet Union will be concentrated nine armies, 150 divisions”. He later increased this figure to between 170 to 190 divisions, and that Operation Barbarossa will start without an ultimatum or declaration of war.

All of this fell on deaf ears. Sorge, who had his vices being a heavy drinker and womaniser, was ridiculed by Stalin just before the Germans attacked as someone “who has set up factories and brothels in Japan”. To be fair to Stalin, at the late date of 17 June 1941 Sorge was not fully certain if Barbarossa would go ahead. Why? The German military attaché in Tokyo became unsure if it would proceed, and sometimes a spy is only as good as his or her sources.

Meanwhile in March 1941, Russia’s State Security forces acquired an account about a meeting the Romanian autocrat, Ion Antonescu, had with a German official named Bering, where the subject of war with Russia was discussed. Antonescu had in fact been informed by Hitler, as early as 14 January 1941, of the German plan to invade Russia, such was the prominent position Romania held in Nazi war aims. The German-controlled Ploesti refineries in southern Romania produced 5.5 million tons of oil in 1941, and 5.7 million tons in 1942.

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini learnt of the German attack on Russia only after it had commenced – in part because Hitler believed he did not really need Italy, he had not asked for their help; and it was also hardly Italy’s fight, considering that country’s position cut adrift somewhat in south-central Europe. The Italian people, furthermore, would not want their troops involved in a brutal conflict against Russia, and which had nothing to do with Italy. The Duce had other ideas, and after the war the Austrian commando Otto Skorzeny correctly wrote, “Benito Mussolini was not a good wartime leader”.

By mid-March 1941, the Soviet leadership had a detailed description of the Barbarossa plan. The period, throughout March and early April 1941, saw tensions rise significantly between Berlin and Moscow, notably in south-eastern Europe. The American author Harrison E. Salisbury noted, “This was the moment in which Yugoslavia with tacit encouragement from Moscow defied the Germans, and in which the Germans moved rapidly and decisively to end the war in Greece, and occupy the whole of the Balkans. When Moscow signed a treaty with Yugoslavia on April 6 – the day Hitler attacked Belgrade – the German reaction was so savage that Stalin became alarmed”.

On 25 March 1941 the Yugoslav government of the regent, Prince Paul, had signed an agreement in Vienna, which effectively made Yugoslavia a Nazi client state. Nevertheless, just two days later patriotic factions in the Serbian populace, assisted by British agents and led by chief of the Yugoslav air force, General Dusan Simovic, overthrew the pro-German regency. They installed a monarchy headed by the teenage king, Peter II of Yugoslavia; and a new government was formed in the capital Belgrade which declared its neutrality. Upon hearing this, Winston Churchill declared it to be “great news” and that Yugoslavia had “found its soul” while it would receive from London “all possible aid and succour”.

Hitler was irate at Churchill’s gloating and the sudden reversal in Yugoslav policy. Feeling he had been betrayed somehow, he decided to teach the Yugoslavs a lesson. Hitler ordered his Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring to launch a furious air attack on Belgrade. In the days from 6 April 1941, thousands of people were killed in Belgrade from Nazi air raids. On the ground Yugoslav forces were no match for the Germans, who were helped by the Italians, and the fighting was all over after less than two weeks. Churchill’s aid and succour was sadly not forthcoming.

The Nazi-led Axis powers likewise invaded Greece on 6 April 1941, and by the middle of that month the Greek position had become untenable; therefore on 24 April British forces in Greece began their evacuation of the country. This was an operation the British had by now developed a real expertise in, as to escape the German blows they previously evacuated Dunkirk, Le Havre and Narvik.

Because of his subjugation of Yugoslavia and Greece, Hitler on 30 April 1941 postponed the attack on the Soviet Union until 22 June. It has sometimes been claimed that this delay, of just over five weeks, was a central factor in later derailing Barbarossa. Though an attractive one, this theory does not stand up under closer inspection.

The Nazi invasion eventually petered out, but largely due to strategic errors committed by the German high command and Hitler, such as not directing the majority of their forces towards Moscow, the USSR’s communications centre. Moreover, Canadian historian Donald J. Godspeed observed, “the middle of May was really too early for an invasion of Russia. Before the middle of June, late spring rains would ruin the roads, flood the rivers, and make movement very difficult except on the few paved highways. Thus, since the initial surprise thrust had to go rapidly to yield the best results, Hitler probably gained more than he lost by his postponement”.

The spring and early summer of 1941 were particularly wet, across eastern Poland and the western parts of European Russia. Had the Germans invaded as originally intended on 15 May 1941, their advance would have bogged down in the first weeks. It is interesting to note that the Polish-Russian river valleys were still overflowing on 1 June, according to the American historian Samuel W. Mitcham.

On 3 April 1941 Churchill attempted to warn Stalin, through the British ambassador to Russia, Stafford Cripps, that London’s intelligence data indicated the Germans were preparing an attack on Russia. Stalin gave no credence whatever to British intelligence reports, because he was distrustful of Britain even more so than America, and it is likely such warnings if anything increased his suspicions further.

In late April 1941 Jefferson Patterson, the First Secretary of the US Embassy in Berlin, invited his Russian counterpart Valentin Berezhkov to cocktails at his home. Among the invitees was a Luftwaffe major, apparently on leave from North Africa. Late in the evening this German major confided to Berezhkov, “The fact is I’m not here on leave. My squadron was recalled from North Africa, and yesterday we got orders to transfer to the east, to the region of Lodz [central Poland]. There may be nothing special in that, but I know many other units have also been transferred to your frontiers recently”. Berezhkov was disturbed to hear this, and never before had a Wehrmacht officer divulged top secret news like that. Berezhkov passed on what he heard to Moscow.

Throughout April 1941, daily bulletins from the Soviet General Staff and Naval Staff outlined German troop gatherings along the Russian frontier. On 1 May an account from the General Staff to the Soviet border military districts stated, “In the course of all March and April… the German command has carried out an accelerated transfer of troops to the borders of the Soviet Union”. Try as the Germans might, it was impossible for them to conceal the gathering of vast numbers of their soldiers. The German presence was obvious along the central River Bug boundary; the Soviet chief of frontier guards asked Moscow for approval to relocate the families of Red Army troops further east. Permission was not granted and the commander was upbraided for showing “panic”.

Nazi reconnaissance flights, near or over Soviet territory, were increasing as the spring of 1941 continued. Between 28 March and 18 April, the Russians said that German planes had been sighted 80 times making incursions. On 15 April, a German aircraft was forced into an emergency landing near the city of Rovno, in western Ukraine. On board a camera was found, along with exposed film and a map of the USSR. The German chargé d’affaires in Moscow, Werner von Tippelskirch, was summoned to the Foreign Commissariat on 22 April 1941. He met stiff protestations about the German overflights.

Yet Nazi planes were hardly ever shot at, because Stalin forbade the Soviet armed forces from doing so, for fear of provoking an invasion. In early May 1941 the German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary, “Stalin and his people remain completely inactive. Like a rabbit confronted by a snake”.

On 5 May 1941 Stalin received from his intelligence agencies a report detailing, “German officers and soldiers speak openly of the coming war, between Germany and the Soviet Union, as a matter already decided. The war is expected to start after the completion of spring planting”. Also on 5 May Stalin gave a speech to young Soviet officers at the Kremlin, and he spoke seriously of the Nazi threat. “War with Germany is inevitable ”Stalin said, but there is no sign the Soviet ruler believed a German attack was imminent.

On 24 May 1941, the head of the German western press department, Karl Bemer, got drunk at a reception in the Bulgarian embassy in Berlin. Bemer was heard roaring “we will be boss of all Russia and Stalin will be dead. We will demolish the Russians quicker than we did the French”. This incident quickly came to the attention of Ivan Filippov, a Russian correspondent in Berlin working for the TASS news agency. Filippov, also a Soviet intelligence operative, heard that Bemer was thereafter arrested by German police.

In early June 1941 Admiral Mikhail Vorontsov, the Russian naval attaché in Berlin, telegrammed his fellow Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov, who was in Moscow, and stated that the Germans would invade around the 20th to the 22nd of June. Kuznetsov checked to see if Stalin was given a copy of this telegram, and he found that he certainly received it.

Nazi Germany’s Economic Exploitation of the USSR

Looking back over an eight decade time-span at the design for Operation Barbarossa, the June 1941 German-led attack on the USSR, its invasion plan betrays a pathological overconfidence. The strategic planning, of advancing across a breadth of many hundreds of miles of terrain, was excessively ambitious to the point of being grotesque.

Barbarossa’s intelligence details were also poorly worked out. Nazi estimates on Soviet military capacity were based more on guesswork than reliable information, and this underestimation of the enemy would come back to haunt them.

On 13 May 1941 in preparation for the invasion, Adolf Hitler’s close colleague Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel issued an order outlining that, upon capture, all Soviet commissars were to be executed immediately. The commissars were Communist Party officials attached to military units, in order to imbue Red Army troops with Bolshevik principles and loyalty to the Soviet state.

It was because of this that Hitler designated the commissars to be liquidated in their thousands. The order signed, on 13 May, continued that Soviet civilians suspected of committing offences against the Wehrmacht could be shot, on the request of any German officer. Most maliciously of all, it was made clear that German soldiers found perpetrating crimes against non-combatants need not be prosecuted.

Those Wehrmacht officers that did not believe in Nazism, i.e. because they were monarchists or conservatives, could still reprimand German troops for misdeeds if they wished to, and this did occur. One of the most prominent German Army commanders in the early 1940s, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock leading Army Group Center, was an avowed monarchist who disliked Nazism.

The Jewish Virtual Library, overseen by American foreign policy analyst Mitchell Bard, acknowledged that von Bock “privately expressed outrage at the atrocities” committed by SS killing squads on the Eastern front; but the field marshal was “unwilling to take the matter directly to Hitler” though he did send “one of his subordinate officers to lodge the complaint”. The Jewish Virtual Library noted that the crimes committed against Soviet civilians further “outraged many of von Bock’s subordinate officers”.

This is not to suggest the Wehrmacht, as a whole, was clean in its conduct in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. It was by no means that, which came primarily as a result of staunch Nazis being placed in positions of authority in the German Army; like the Chief-of-Staff Franz Halder and Field Marshal Walter von Reichenau, commander of the German 6th Army.

Among the invasion’s goals was flagrant exploitation, looting and annexation. With this in mind, the Nazis established the Economic Office East, which was placed under the authority of Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering, the second most powerful man in the Third Reich. Goering informed Benito Mussolini’s son-in-law, Count Galeazzo Ciano, that “This year [1941] between 20 and 30 million persons will die in Russia of hunger. Perhaps it is well that it should be so, for certain nations must be decimated. But even if it were not, nothing can be done about it”. Count Ciano, who was the Italian Foreign Minister since 1936, passed on Goering’s comments to Mussolini.

More than three weeks after the German attack, Goering wrote on 15 July 1941, “Use of the occupied territories should be made primarily in the food and oil sectors of the economy. Get to Germany as much food and oil as possible – that is the main economic goal of the campaign”.

It is still not entirely clear whether the Nazi method of systematizing the plunder and administering the occupied territories (known as Plan Oldenburg) was based on the belief that the Reich required this amount of foodstuffs, with the deaths of millions of Russians and Jews from starvation being a side effect; or whether their desire was the depopulation of the conquered regions, with starvation used as a convenient process for mass murder. Whatever the principal motive, the prospects of Soviet citizens unfortunate enough to fall under Nazi occupation was grim.

The German march onto Russian soil was hardly a new historical occurrence. A generation before, the eastern divisions of the Imperial German Army, commanded by Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg, had from late 1914 captured chunks of the Russian Empire’s territory; which on that occasion came after the Imperial Russian Army had marched into East Prussia.

German eastern expansion under Ludendorff and Hindenburg was concerned too with conquest, but theirs was more humane than Nazi policy, as it did not descend to the widespread killing of civilians or Jewish populations. Instead, Ludendorff and Hindenburg sought to commandeer livestock and horses, while exploiting “the extensive agricultural and forestry resources for the German war effort”, historians Jens Thiel and Christian Westerhoff observed.

Hitler’s East Prussian gauleiter Erich Koch, who would be in charge of ruling Nazi-occupied Ukraine, said that, “Our task is to suck from the Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of, without consideration of the feeling or the property of the Ukrainians. Gentlemen: I am expecting from you the utmost severity toward the native population”.

The 1941 German invasion force consisted of 136 divisions, which amounted to 3 million men. They were supported at the beginning by over half a million Finnish and Romanian troops, commanded by Gustaf Mannerheim and Ion Antonescu, two experienced career officers who for differing reasons desired the USSR’s destruction. Field Marshal Mannerheim of Finland, a monarchist and more moderate figure than General Antonescu, had never forgiven the Bolsheviks for shooting Tsar Nicholas II and his family on 17 July 1918; Mannerheim wept bitterly when he heard of the Tsar’s death, for he was both well acquainted with the Russian monarch and had served under him in the Imperial Russian Army.

Of the 136 Wehrmacht divisions which would attack the USSR on 22 June 1941, a modest 19 of them were panzer divisions and 14 comprised of motor divisions. In all, about 600,000 German motor vehicles would roll to the east, but the Germans deployed up to 750,000 horses in the invasion. It demonstrates that the Wehrmacht was not the ultra-modern, motorized army that Nazi propaganda insisted it was.

Facing the Germans across the border, in the western USSR, were three very large Soviet Army Groups, comprising of 193 equivalent divisions. Fifty-four of these were tank or motor divisions, significantly more than the Germans had. Since 1932, Joseph Stalin spent huge sums in equipping the military with motorized machines and heavy armor. In particular, the Russians possessed a far greater number of tanks than the enemy; but the experience and quality of Soviet tank crews was noticeably inferior to the Germans, who were battle-hardened and well-versed in the Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) style of combat.

There were other serious Russian weaknesses. Stalin’s purge of the Red Army high command from May 1937 “affected the development of our armed forces and their combat preparedness”, Marshal Georgy Zhukov wrote, the most lauded Russian commander of the 20th century. The purges, though they targeted a minority of the entire Soviet military corps, had inflicted “enormous damage” on “the top echelons of the army command” Zhukov stated. It meant that paralysis was endemic in the Red Army’s decision-making apparatus, which would have serious implications around the time of the German invasion.

Hitler’s calculations for attacking the USSR were audacious, to put it mildly. The Fuehrer expected to overthrow Stalin’s Russia in about 8 weeks, and once that was accomplished, he intended to turn back and finish off Britain. Hitler estimated that he would not really be embroiled in a two-front war and, in this he was right, for now. The British were in no position in 1941 to interfere with the Nazi plan for eastward enlargement.

The German offensive was indeed to be launched across a massive front, but the Schwerpunkt – the heaviest point of the German blow – was to land north of the Pripet Marshes in Soviet Belarus. Here, two formidable forces, Army Group North led by Field Marshal Ritter von Leeb, and Army Group Center led by Field Marshal von Bock, would implement a giant pincers movement against the Soviet armies opposing them. They would then as envisaged continue advancing and take the capital city, Moscow, European Russia’s communications hub. This indicates that Hitler had originally assigned Moscow as a primary objective.

Von Leeb’s Army Group North comprised of the German 16th Army (commanded by Ernst Busch) and the 18th Army (Georg von Kuechler), supported by four panzer divisions under Colonel-General Erich Hoepner.

Army Group Center was, by some distance, the biggest of the three Army Groups which attacked the USSR. It consisted of the German 2nd Army (Maximilian von Weichs), the 4th Army (Günther von Kluge) and the 9th Army (Adolf Strauss), bolstered by two armored groups totaling 10 panzer divisions and commanded by Generals Heinz Guderian and Hermann Hoth.

Gerd von Rundstedt’s Army Group South was made up of the German 6th Army (Walter von Reichenau), the 17th Army (Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel), a German-Romanian Army (Eugen Ritter von Schobert), and supported by four panzer divisions under Colonel-General Ewald von Kleist. Von Rundstedt’s Army Group was designated to advance south of the Pripet Marshes.

In doing so, von Rundstedt was expected to move rapidly in conquering eastern Poland and, specifically, to capture the ancient Polish city of Lublin, close to the Ukrainian border. This would provide a launching pad for Army Group South’s panzers to thrust into the Ukraine, and take its capital Kiev, the Soviet Union’s third largest city with 930,000 inhabitants. Thereafter, von Rundstedt’s divisions would be requested to occupy all of the Ukraine, with Hitler wanting that country’s resources for pillaging, such as wheat, for it to become “the breadbasket of the Reich”, as he put it.

While Hitler gathered his 136 divisions along the Nazi-Soviet frontier, he left 46 divisions behind to guard the rest of mainland Europe. That number does seem excessive and many of those German formations would be left idle. Military historian Donald J. Goodspeed wrote, “Certainly far fewer than 46 divisions could have countered any British initiative on the continent, a possibility that was in any case unlikely”.

Although the Soviet Army proved much larger than the Nazis thought, it was unprepared for the attack that was to come. A considerable proportion of the Red Army in June 1941 was positioned too close to the Nazi-Soviet boundary which, since 1939, had been extended across Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Romania.

The Stalin Line, a series of fortifications constructed from the late 1920s, and which guarded the western USSR’s pre-1939 frontiers, had merely been partially dismantled. The new forward defense positions were incomplete by mid-1941. The Soviet military’s armored formations had also been broken up, and the tanks allotted to infantry divisions. The latter error was corrected by Stalin as he repositioned the armored divisions, but they were still in the process of entering full working order when the Germans attacked.

Furthermore, Stalin and the Red Army high command believed the focal point of the German assault would fall south of the Pripet Marshes – that is through the Ukraine – whereas the Germans would, as mentioned, strike most heavily north of the Pripet Marshes across Soviet Belarus. The Russian defenses were placed at their strongest in the wrong sector of the front. This misjudgment in part enabled Army Group Center to advance rapidly into the heart of Belarus, where the Red Army was not fortified so strongly.

Why Nazi Germany Failed to Defeat the Soviet Union

As the First World War was erupting from late summer 1914, the great majority of political leaders believed it would be of short duration.

Only the rare far-sighted individual knew what was coming, such as Herbert Kitchener, Britain’s Secretary of War. At one of the first British Cabinet conferences at the conflict’s outset, Kitchener predicted the fighting would rumble on for three years, and that Britain would eventually be required to deploy its full resources. His estimation of a three-year war was shy of just one year.

Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary, recalled that Kitchener’s prediction had “seemed to most of us unlikely, if not incredible”. On 8 August 1914 Winston Churchill, the First Lord of the Admiralty, estimated that the war would last for nine months, which was longer than many thought.

Kitchener’s colleagues failed to realize, such was mankind’s advancements in technology by the early 20th century – about 150 years after the Industrial Revolution had begun in Britain around 1760 – that a war between the great powers would most likely be lengthy, and a slaughter of unprecedented proportions could only ensue. After the bloodletting finally stopped on 11 November 1918, realistic analysts like Vladimir Lenin stated that the waging of war was “a survival from the bourgeois world”; while the German commander Hans von Seeckt said “war was no longer an intelligent way to conduct a nation’s policy”.

The rise to power in Italy and Germany of fervent warmongers, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, was a near guarantee that another large-scale conflict was in the offing.

Both Mussolini and Hitler’s taking of power, in 1922 and 1933 respectively, was assisted massively by the social upheaval and destabilisation induced as a result of World War I.

Neville Chamberlain, Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini Meet in 1938

The weak-willed response of the western democracies to Nazi enlargement from the mid-1930s, particularly the timid French reaction, emboldened Hitler on the path to war. British professor Evan Mawdsley, who specialises in Russian history, wrote of the Third Reich’s position by 1941 that “invading Russia was not the fatal mistake of Nazi Germany. After all, what was Hitler’s alternative? Not to invade Russia? Inaction would have allowed Germany’s enemies to become stronger, and would have left Germany economically dependent on Russia. The lethal mistake had been made earlier, when Hitler’s adventures in Czechoslovakia and Poland led Germany into a general war”.

The fighting initially went as well as the Wehrmacht could have hoped for; they routed Poland in September 1939 and then scored further routine victories in Scandinavia and across western Europe, during the spring and summer of 1940. The principal opposing force, the French Army, had been decaying ever since 1917. That year mutinies spread to no less than 54 French divisions by 9 June 1917. Even in those formations where no mutinies occurred, over 50% of French soldiers returning from leave reported back drunk. These amazing occurrences were hushed up as best they could by the French military command, and the silence needlessly continued long afterwards.

Canadian historian Donald J. Goodspeed explained,

“Shame and pride are bad counselors, and the causes of the catastrophe in French morale that occurred in 1917 were never brought out into full daylight, where they could have been analysed and perhaps cured. That no real cure was affected, the debacle of 1940 conclusively proved”.

The Nazis now turned their attention to the main target of their imperialist foreign policy: the Soviet Union, which Hitler had envisaged conquering for many years. Hitler was given encouragement by the Soviet Army’s underwhelming performance, in the 1939-1940 Winter War against Finland, with its population of around 4 million.

Yet as the Finns’ leading commander Gustaf Mannerheim fairly concluded, the Soviets learnt lessons from their opening military shortcomings on Finnish soil, and their performance “slowly improved” as the weeks elapsed. The gradual uptake in Russia’s military display here was unknown to the few German military observers, who had accompanied the Red Army on their Finnish incursion. The Germans were left unimpressed by the first Soviet raids, before departing homeward early.

The Wehrmacht meanwhile enjoyed more swift triumphs, over Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941, which only emboldened Hitler further. The German conquest of Yugoslavia and Greece compelled Hitler to postpone his invasion of the USSR by 38 days. This delay is often purported to be a crucial reason, in the Nazis’ failure to capture Moscow and overthrow the Soviet Union.

American military historian Samuel W. Mitcham, who focuses largely on the Nazi regime, revealed otherwise as “the spring rains in eastern Poland and the western sections of European Russia came late in 1941, and were much heavier than usual. Many of the Polish-Russian river valleys (including the Bug) were still flooded as late as June 1; therefore, the invasion of the Soviet Union could not have begun until after that”.

The ground in the western USSR had dried out by 22 June 1941. It was ideal for the panzers, half-tracks, and so on to move with ease. In addition, for weeks Joseph Stalin had refused to believe the swell of intelligence accounts he received in person from his own agencies, and from abroad, warning of a coming German attack.

Lt. Col. Goodspeed wrote,

“The reports from Soviet intelligence were the most plausible, accurate and detailed of all; and they displayed a remarkable convergence, which should have augmented their credibility. Victor Sukolov, the head of the Rote Kopelle [Red Orchestra] in Brussels, Rudolph Rössler in Switzerland, Leopold Trepper in Paris, and Dr. Richard Sorge in Tokyo all informed Stalin of Barbarossa”.

The Kremlin was clearly not expecting the German invasion to fall in the summer of 1941. Marshal Nikolay Voronov, a top level Russian commander in charge of the Red Army’s artillery forces, and a future Hero of the Soviet Union, remembered on the eve of Hitler’s attack, “I did not know in that time whether we had any kind of operative-strategic plan, in case of war. I only knew that the plan for artillery and combat artillery tactics had not yet been approved, although the first draft had been worked out in 1938”.

Further evidence of the lack of Russian preparedness was seen when, in the opening phase of the invasion, large numbers of Soviet airplanes were destroyed by the Germans, much of them on the ground. Air units of the Soviet Western Military District lost 740 of its 1,540 aircraft (a 48% loss) on the first day alone of the German attack; its local commander, General Ivan Kopets, viewed the destruction with despair and shot himself on 23 June 1941.

The ruin of the Soviet Air Force was even worse in the Baltic Military District. During the first three days of Operation Barbarossa, 920 Soviet aircraft out of a total of 1,080 were destroyed in the Baltic region, an 85% loss. Furthermore, many undamaged and repairable Russian planes had to be abandoned, as the Germans and their Axis allies (mainly Romanians and Finns at first) swarmed over Soviet terrain. By the first week of July 1941, the Soviets had lost almost 4,000 aircraft, while the Luftwaffe was shorn of just 550 of its planes at that point.

Stalin had been awoken by his security chief, Nikolai Vlasik, in the early hours of 22 June 1941, and he was told of heavy German shelling along the Nazi-Soviet frontier. Stalin at first refused to believe that the worst had occurred and he said, “Hitler surely doesn’t know about it”. Later in the morning of 22 June, Stalin ordered the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov to seek out the German ambassador to the USSR, Friedrich von Schulenburg. The latter confirmed Nazi Germany’s declaration of war on the Soviet Union.

A dismayed Molotov (image on the right) reported back to Stalin,

“The German government has declared war on us”. Robert Service, the British historian of Soviet history, noted that upon hearing this, “Stalin slumped in his chair and an unbearable silence followed”. When General Georgy Zhukov then suggested they put in place measures, to hold up the German advance, Service wrote “Stalin continued to stipulate that Soviet ground forces should not infringe German territorial integrity”.

Contrary to what is commonly claimed, on learning that the Germans had certainly attacked with Hitler’s agreement, Stalin did not suffer a breakdown and disappear. On 23 June 1941 for example, as Service wrote in his biography of the Soviet ruler, “Stalin worked without rest in his Kremlin office. For 15 hours at a stretch from 3.20 am, he consulted with the members of the Supreme Command”. As the hours went by Service writes that Stalin “called generals to his office, made his enquiries about the situation to the west of Moscow, and gave his instructions. About his supremacy there was no doubt”.

Only from the early morning of 29 June 1941 did Stalin suffer a relapse, and retire to his nearby dacha in a deeply depressed condition. This was quite probably a delayed reaction brought on by his difficult visit, on 27 June, to the Soviet Ministry of Defence. When Generals Zhukov and Semyon Timoshenko showed Stalin, on operational maps, the astonishing advancements made by the German Army, Service wrote that Stalin “was shocked by the extent of the disaster for the Red Army”.

Image on the left: General Zhukov

By 27 June, units from the German Army Group Centre had already reached Minsk, the capital of Soviet Belorussia, and less than 450 miles west of Moscow. Shaken and disturbed by this Stalin reportedly lamented, “Lenin founded our state and we’ve fucked it up”.

After Hitler had ordered the attack against Russia on 22 June, the authorities in Britain and America forecast another brisk German victory. Their views were influenced by the apparent invincibility of the Wehrmacht, their dislike of Bolshevism, and also Stalin’s recent purge of the Red Army. Outside observers mistakenly believed the purge had decimated Soviet fighting capacity. Mawdsley in his extensive study of the Nazi-Soviet war wrote, “Many able middle-level commanders survived the purges” while the “commanders and commissars who were shot made up a minority”.

A major offensive in the modern era, perhaps in any age, constitutes a huge gamble on the part of the invader, brutal as these attacks usually are, and the Nazi invasion was the most vicious of all. Various factors can combine to result in its failure: strength of the invasion force, strategic errors, quality of the terrain, underestimation of the enemy, the weather, etc. These elements are magnified when attacking the world’s largest country (Russia), as Napoleon had discovered and soon Hitler too.

Nevertheless, there are a couple of overwhelming reasons why the German attack would fail. Firstly, Hitler did not place the German nation on a Total War footing, until February 1943, much too late. The Nazi economy in the early 1940’s produced an “extraordinary degree of inefficiency and wastefulness”, the English historian Richard Overy discerned. It resulted in labour shortages, fewer German weapons, aircraft and panzers, and less soldiers, while German women for the most part remained at home, rather than working in the armament factories.

After the defeat of France, a full mobilization of German manpower would have produced a Wehrmacht attacking force of about 6 million men in June 1941. This is double the size of the 3 million German soldiers which invaded Russia that month. Taking into account strategic mistakes committed and heroic Russian resistance, a German invasion with 6 million troops would surely have been too much for the Soviets to contend with, and it was possible to achieve.

Albert Speer, German Minister of Armaments and Munitions from 1942-1945, wrote on 29 March 1947,

“In the middle of 1941, Hitler could easily have had an army equipped twice as powerfully as it was… We could even have mobilised approximately 3 million more men of the younger age-groups before 1942, without losses in production… 3 million additional soldiers would have added up to many divisions. These, moreover, could have been excellently equipped as a result of the increased production”.

Another monumental error, on the part of the German high command and Hitler, was the strategic design for Operation Barbarossa. This consisted of splitting their forces into three large Army Groups, and ordering them to capture three different objectives simultaneously (Leningrad, Moscow and the Ukraine); rather than directing their resources towards easily the most important goal – Moscow, the communications stronghold and heartbeat of Soviet Russia, which will be discussed further here.

Lt. Col. Goodspeed, a skilled military strategist, wrote that,

“Although in operations and tactics the German Army had proved itself far and away superior to the Red Army, the same could not be said of German strategy. The fault was so simple and obvious that a child might have foreseen it. The German high command had attempted too many things at the same time”.

The German attack was launched across almost the entire breadth of the western USSR. Its Schwerpunkt, that is the heavy point of the German blow, fell north of the famous Pripet Marshes in Belorussia. However, the Germans and their Axis allies were ordered to attack everywhere at once. The strategic planning for Barbarossa went beyond even the Wehrmacht’s military capabilities; it was breathtaking in its boldness, irresponsible and grotesque.

Goodspeed summarised,

“But Hitler wanted too much and, as a consequence, got nothing. This same fundamental error was repeated again and again. It recurs like a leitmotif in the Führer’s strategic thought. When the advance against Moscow might have been successfully resumed in August, and previous mistakes rectified, Hitler turned his thrust south into the Ukraine and north against Leningrad. Again, two objectives and both of them the wrong ones. When Leningrad might have been taken in September, Hitler diverted forces back from Army Group North to Moscow, and thereby captured neither Leningrad nor Moscow”.

This viewpoint is supported by Mawdsley who pinpointed the “mistake that Hitler and his high command made in 1941” which was “to attack everywhere”. Hitler did not designate primary importance to Moscow, until it was weeks too late. The Russian capital held critical significance as the centre of Soviet communications, which was recognised by military leaders like Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, the commander of German Army Group Centre, which was supposed to capture Moscow. Virtually all roads and railways led to the capital, like spokes into the hub of a wheel.

This was not the case when Napoleon’s forces had occupied Moscow on 14 September 1812. Moscow at that time did not hold the same status, by comparison to its importance in the 20th century, when armies had become reliant on railways and motorised transport for supplies. The first railway line in Russia was built in 1837, a quarter of a century after Napoleon’s invasion.

Were Moscow to be captured in the autumn of 1941, the Russians would have had tremendous difficulty supplying and reinforcing their northern and southern fronts. This includes the Leningrad and Ukrainian sectors. The rail system of the western USSR would have been shattered, inflicting a hammer blow on the Soviet Army.

Goodspeed wrote that from Barbarossa’s outset,

“Quite conceivably, a single great thrust along the Warsaw-Smolensk-Moscow axis might have secured the Russian capital for the Germans by the end of August. Army Groups North and South could have acted as flank guards for such a thrust, and once the Russian centre had been demolished and the communications hub of Moscow taken, the Soviet northern and southern fronts would have been isolated from one another. Then a drive down the Volga in September might well have achieved a second victory, greater even than the Battle of Kiev. This done, Leningrad and the northern front could have been dealt with at leisure, and by another overwhelming concentration of force”.

One major thrust towards Moscow would, also, have taken the ferocious Russian weather out of the equation. The autumn rains and snow arrived in force from early October 1941, weeks after Moscow could have been taken. As events panned out, such weather seriously slowed the German advance.

The political ramifications of Moscow’s capitulation would have been considerable too. Stalin and his entourage were headquartered there. What would Stalin have done had Moscow fallen to the Germans in August or September 1941? He may have decided to stay and thereby seal his fate, or he could have chosen to relocate to Asiatic Russia, where it would have been arduous to hold together a government.

Most importantly of all, as Germany’s generals were aware, the bulk of the Red Army was centred in front of Moscow for the defense of the capital. If these Russian divisions were to be surrounded in a vast pincers movement and forced to surrender, the war would have been practically over.

Two months into the invasion, on 21 August 1941 Hitler fatefully intervened in the direction of the war, believing he would be proved right and the German generals wrong – as had been repeatedly the case on political matters. Hitler compounded Barbarossa’s early strategic mistakes by ordering on this date: “The most important objective to be taken before the coming of the winter is NOT the capture of Moscow, but the capture of the Crimea and of the industrial and coal-mining area of the Donets, and the cutting off of Russian oil supplies from the Caucasus; and to the north the investment of Leningrad and the linking up with the Finns”.

Hitler’s Chief of Operations, General Alfred Jodl, defended this decision by claiming that Hitler wished to avoid the blunders of Napoleon. As mentioned earlier, Moscow was of much greater importance in the year 1941 as opposed to 1812. Hitler was greedy and saw too many things at once, rather than focusing on a single goal at a time (similar strategic errors were committed in July 1942, when Hitler split up his forces to capture two objectives simultaneously, Stalingrad and the Caucasus).

Hitler’s wish, to strike everywhere, could have been influenced too because of his desire to spread as much death and destruction to the Soviet Union as possible, which he believed was the homeland of “Jewish Bolshevism”.

Upon hearing the new orders of 21 August 1941, two days later General Heinz Guderian travelled west to Hitler’s headquarters, situated in the dense forests near Rastenburg, East Prussia. Guderian, commanding the 2nd Panzer Group, informed Hitler that the taking of Moscow would paralyse the Soviet transportation and communication networks; the general stressed the political significance of Moscow’s demise, and the huge lift it would provide to German morale.

Moreover, Guderian insisted that the fall of the capital would make it easier to conquer other parts of the USSR, such as the Ukraine. Yet Hitler’s mind was firmly set and he told Guderian that his generals “know nothing of the economic aspects of war”. The orders were left unchanged.

Goodspeed observed,

“Thus, quietly, in a headquarters far from the sound of guns, Germany lost the war. The Führer directive of August 21, 1941, marked a great turning point in modern history. Many horrors were still to come, and mankind has by no means moved out from the darkness of these times, but at least the world was to be spared a Nazi victory”.

General Franz Halder, Chief of Staff of the German Army High Command, stated that Hitler’s above directive was “decisive to the outcome of this campaign”.

Operation Barbarossa, an Overview

The USSR’s hierarchy was caught unprepared, and unnecessarily so, when Nazi Germany invaded their country eight decades ago on 22 June 1941, in a military offensive titled Operation Barbarossa. It was named after King Frederick Barbarossa, a red-bearded Prussian emperor who in the 12th century had waged war against the Slavs.

On the sixth day of the attack, 27 June 1941, German Army Group Center had already reached Minsk, the capital of Soviet Belarus. Amazingly it meant, at this very early stage, that the Germans were closer to Moscow than Berlin: as the crow flies, the Wehrmacht was now 430 miles from the Russian capital as opposed to 590 miles from the German capital.

After a week of fighting, the Soviets had lost around 600,000 troops and thousands of their aircraft had been destroyed, the majority of them on the ground. When on 27 June the Soviet commanders, Georgy Zhukov and Semyon Timoshenko, showed Joseph Stalin on operational maps that the Germans had advanced on Minsk, he was visibly shocked by the magnitude of the disaster. Should Stalin have been so surprised, considering the unprecedented rapidity the year before at which the Germans had blazed through France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg?

In the middle of 1941, Stalin had been in charge of the Soviet Union for over a decade whereas, in Germany, Adolf Hitler was in control for little more than 8 years. By the early 1940s, the Wehrmacht was Europe’s most efficient military organization and killing machine. This was in some contrast to the larger Red Army, whose poor display against Finland’s paltry armed forces, from 30 November 1939 to 13 March 1940 (the Winter War), provided stark evidence of the harm imparted on the Soviet military by Stalin’s purges, which had begun in May 1937.

British historian Evan Mawdsley wrote that “the purges certainly played a most important part in what happened on and after 22 June 1941”. Marshal Zhukov, one of the most celebrated commanders in Russian history, was heavily critical of the purges after the war, which will be elaborated upon further here.

It can be mentioned firstly, however, that the extent of the Soviet military purges has tended to be exaggerated and distorted down the years. There were 142,000 Soviet Army commanders and commissars in 1937, just before the purges started. Mawdsley noted, “It is sometimes suggested that half the leadership of the Red Army was wiped out, which was certainly not the case” as “the Red Army commanders and commissars who were shot made up a minority” of the entire Russian military leadership corps.

The damage inflicted on the top ranks was still extensive. Three out of five marshals and 20 Soviet army commanders, along with dozens of corps and divisional commanders among others, were liquidated between 1937 and 1941. The loss of high-level officers inevitably undermined and weakened the Red Army’s command apparatus, and it came at a time when the clouds of war were ominously gathering in Europe.

Marshal Zhukov wrote in his memoirs of “unfounded arrests in the armed forces” which were “in contravention of socialist legality. Prominent military leaders were arrested which, naturally, affected the development of our armed forces and their combat preparedness”.

Altogether, more than 34,000 Soviet officers were dismissed from the military as the purges ran their course, but a third of these (11,500) were eventually reinstated; perhaps most notably Konstantin Rokossovsky, who became one of the most important Soviet commanders of World War II. English author Geoffrey Roberts, writing in his biography of Zhukov, realized that “the vast majority of the armed forces” had “survived the purges”, which is necessary to stress.

Yet in the weeks before and after the German invasion, when the initiative to make crucial and independent decisions was needed, much paralysis reigned in the Soviet high command; which had been disproportionately affected by the purges.

Mawdsley, who specializes in Russian affairs, wrote of the Red Army leaders that were victimized, “These men possessed the fullest professional, educational and operational experience the Red Army had accumulated… Despite professional and personal rivalries among themselves, these leaders had formed a fairly cohesive command structure. The paradox is that this is why Stalin mistrusted them”.

An eminent Soviet diplomat, Andrei Gromyko, who was the USSR’s Foreign Affairs Minister from 1957 to 1985, was first introduced to Stalin in 1939 and saw him many times thereafter. Gromyko became acquainted too with Soviet Army dignitaries like Zhukov. In Gromyko’s book ‘Memories: From Stalin to Gorbachev’, he wrote that Zhukov “spoke bitterly of the enormous damage Stalin had inflicted on the country by his massacre of the top echelons of the army command”.

Gromyko recalled Zhukov saying of the Soviet military men that were purged, “Of course, I regard them as innocent victims. Tukhachevsky was an especially damaging loss for the army and the state”. Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, known overseas as “the Red Napoleon”, was a central figure in the Russian Army’s modernization during the 1920s and 1930s. Zhukov first met Tukhachevsky in 1921 and he later described him as, “A clever, knowledgeable professional, he was splendidly conversant with both tactical and strategic problems… Tukhachevsky was an ace of military thinking, a star of the first magnitude among the great soldiers of the Red Army”.

Zhukov stated that he himself came under suspicion as the purges were unfolding, due to his connections to some of the accused. He vigorously defended his position and avoided censure. Moreover, Zhukov informed Gromyko, “Before the war, the political decision to arm fully was taken very late, and that was the main problem”.

While Zhukov’s criticism on the latter point is also valid, Stalin had engineered a massive increase in the Soviet arms budget from the early 1930s onward, and for this he should be commended. Part of Bolshevik ideology is a belief in the virtue of motorized machines and warfare, without which the Red Army could not have defeated the Wehrmacht and its panzer divisions. Five months before the German attack Stalin told his senior commanders, “the winning side will be the one with the greater number and the more powerful engines”.

Between 1932 and 1937, spending on the Soviet military increased by 340% in overall terms, undoubtedly as a result of Stalin’s direct influence. Through 1937 to 1940 expenditure doubled again on the Soviet defense budget. From 1939, the USSR was constructing over 10,000 warplanes per year, along with almost 3,000 tanks, more than 17,000 artillery pieces and 114,000 machine guns. Payment and conditions for Soviet officers had meanwhile improved greatly, so it was far from being all doom and gloom.

The above figures on Soviet armed capacity were unknown to the Germans; that is, until after they had attacked the USSR, when it soon became obvious the Red Army was much more formidable than Nazi intelligence had estimated. As Mawdsley revealed, German agencies calculated that the Russians had 10,000 tanks in June 1941, whereas in reality they possessed 23,100 tanks. The Germans thought there were 6,000 Soviet aircraft in mid-1941, but in the whole of the USSR there were 20,000 planes, with 9,100 of these positioned near the Nazi-Soviet border.

Under Stalin’s leadership the Russians achieved a remarkable relocation of industry eastwards, in the months following the German assault. This policy was critical to ensuring the Soviet Union could continue producing weaponry en masse, and largely secure from the Nazi onslaught.

Irish professor and geographer John Sweeney wrote, “Over 1,500 industrial enterprises were transplanted, between July and November 1941 alone, to what were considered relatively safe refuges in the interior. The Urals (which received 667 of these enterprises), Kazakhstan and Central Asia (308), West Siberia (244), the Volga Region (226) and East Siberia (78), benefited permanently from this massive injection of industrial investment, and it was in this heartland area that urban growth during the post-war recovery period was concentrated”.

Relating to manpower, the Red Army was likewise significantly bigger than Hitler and his generals believed. In June 1941 Soviet forces consisted of more than 300 divisions, amounting to 5.5 million personnel, 2.7 million of which were stationed in the western USSR. The Germans thought there were only 200 Russian divisions in existence, despite the fact the Soviet population was appreciably greater than Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe combined. In comparison the German invasion force comprised of 3 million men, supported by less than a million troops from its Axis allies such as Romania and Finland, led by the anti-Bolshevik military leaders Ion Antonescu and Gustaf Mannerheim respectively.

Seven weeks into the German invasion, General Franz Halder acknowledged in his diary, “The whole situation makes it increasingly plain that we have underestimated the Russian colossus”. Not long after, even Hitler admitted in a speech in central Berlin, “We had no idea how gigantic the preparations of this enemy were”.

Zhukov and Timoshenko were acutely aware of the massing of German, Finnish and Romanian divisions adjacent to the USSR’s boundaries. The Soviet Army’s foreign intelligence agency (the GRU) confirmed on 15 June 1941, just a week before Operation Barbarossa commenced, that a huge transfer had taken place of German forces to the Nazi-Soviet frontier; with 120 to 122 Wehrmacht divisions reportedly deployed there.

Zhukov told Stalin repeatedly, and as late as mid-June 1941, to be prepared in the case of a German attack. Stalin in turn insisted a few days before Wehrmacht-led armies invaded, “Germany has a Treaty of Non-Aggression with us. Germany is involved up to its ears in the war in the West, and I believe that Hitler will not risk creating a second front for himself by attacking the Soviet Union”.

From November 1940 to June 1941, Stalin personally received a total of 80 intelligence reports warning about a German invasion, according to English historian Andrew Roberts. In mitigation to Stalin, a fair proportion of the intelligence accounts proved inaccurate regarding the invasion start date; others constituted misinformation planted by the Germans; but most reports were genuine and some uncannily close to the mark, like the material sent to the Kremlin by Richard Sorge, a now famous Soviet spy then operating in the German embassy in Tokyo.

Stalin was further warned about Nazi intentions by Soviet agents like the courageous Leopold Trepper in Paris, and also Victor Sukolov in Belgium. The most plausible and detailed reports of all indeed came from Soviet sources, and they peaked in intensity during the first three weeks of June 1941 – along with alarming information forthcoming that Hitler’s allies Finland and Romania were mobilizing for war against Russia. This could not be ignored.

Robert Service, in his lengthy book on Stalin, wrote that, “For weeks the Wehrmacht had been massing on the western banks of the River Bug, as dozens of divisions were transferred from elsewhere in Europe. The Luftwaffe had sent squadrons of reconnaissance aircraft over Soviet cities. All this had been reported to Stalin by his military intelligence agency. In May and June [1941], he had been continually pressed by Timoshenko and Zhukov to sanction the dispositions for an outbreak of fighting. Richard Sorge, the Soviet agent in the German embassy in Tokyo, had raised the alarm. Winston Churchill had sent telegrams warning Stalin. The USSR’s spies in Germany had mentioned the preparations being made. Even the Chinese Communist Party alerted Moscow about German intentions”.

By the second half of June 1941, Stalin was counting on it being too late in the year for the Germans to attack. Regardless, the French commander Napoleon, generations before fast-moving motorized vehicles emerged, had launched his invasion of Russia on 24 June 1812, two days later in June than the Germans.

In addition the spring rains arrived late in the western USSR in 1941, and they were much heavier than normal. Many of the river valleys, including the strategically important River Bug in eastern Poland, were still flooded at the late date of 1 June 1941. This meant that an attack on the Soviet Union could not have proceeded until after then.

Hitler’s Early Victories, the Wolf’s Lair Headquarters

In Hitler’s goals to attain Germanic dominion of the planet, he enjoyed some of his most triumphant days secured away at the vast, virtually unheard of Wolf’s Lair. The complex was known in the German tongue as Wolfsschanze. Hitler had inserted “Wolf” into the title of many of his military headquarters, as it was a self-appointed nickname.

Situated over 400 miles from Berlin in East Prussia, Hitler arrived at the Wolf’s Lair for the first occasion during late evening of 23 June 1941. The advanced time was not an issue. From the days of Hitler’s “struggle” beginning in the early 1920s, he had developed a habit of remaining active until the small hours, often present in rowdy beer halls, and rising as late as noon.

On the night of 23 June 1941, the dictator was again in no mood for bed rest; his form was in fact jubilant as remarkable news filtered through from the Eastern Front. Less than 48 hours after the invasion began, German armies were smashing through the first bewildered Soviet lines, and had already reached the USSR republics of Lithuania, Belarus and the Ukraine.

Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Hitler’s most trusted military companion, also traveled eastwards to join his leader at the new Wolf’s Lair. As Operation Barbarossa rolled mercilessly along, Keitel’s disposition remained pensive and austere. It was the 58-year-old Keitel, almost standing alone in isolation, who had warned Hitler not to attack the Soviet Union.

Conservative and cautious by nature, Keitel detected the unmistakable sense of danger in the air. He was convinced that assaulting a landmass as great as the USSR – with its numerous complications – would be a task too much, even for the apparently unstoppable Wehrmacht. Due to Keitel’s reputation as a willing pawn of Hitler, he was held in poor esteem by an array of German generals and field marshals.

Yet Keitel’s military career had dated to the year 1901, and he possessed a distinguished record, claiming honours for bravery during the First World War while rising through the ranks. Keitel’s demeanour was that of a charming and approachable officer, educated in the old-fashioned virtues of the Prussian military establishment. Keitel possessed strong organizational and literary skills, but lacked the insubordinate, resolute nature to challenge Hitler directly.

Keitel had said later,

“It isn’t right to be obedient only when things go well; it is much harder to be a good, obedient soldier when things go badly and times are hard. Obedience and faith at such time is a virtue”.

His subservience would inevitably lead to a complicity in some of the Nazis’ atrocious crimes.

Unlike Keitel, the great majority of German military leaders firmly supported Hitler’s decision to attack Russia, believing the conflict would last around two months with Stalin’s expected ousting and death. The Nazi war chiefs’ unrealistic confidence swayed Hitler, who believed the Red Army would fold like a pack of cards. By mid-1941 Hitler had still to assume personal command of men in the field, and he unavoidably lacked the required knowledge and expertise.

Meanwhile, on the same evening that Hitler first entered the Wolf’s Lair (23 June 1941), one of the largest tank engagements in military history was starting. It was called the Battle of Brody: A near forgotten clash in north-western Ukraine between 750 panzers and 3,500 Soviet tanks, stretching across the cities of Brody, Dubno and Lutsk. About 350 miles northwards Hitler was in tune to proceedings from the Wolf’s Lair, and awaiting further stunning reports. They would come.

Despite the Nazis being outnumbered by more than four to one during the Battle of Brody, their panzers bludgeoned a way to victory by 30 June 1941. The Germans destroyed many hundreds of Soviet tanks, while meting out 65,000 casualties upon the Red Army. For mile after mile, this section of north-western Ukraine was strewn with dead bodies and horses, shattered Soviet armoured vehicles along with battered heavy weaponry.

The triumph around Brody consolidated vital German gains on the Ukraine’s western boundaries. It was also an indication of the ferocity of Hitler’s troops, as they unleashed what would be the bloodiest invasion of all time.

Also on the night Hitler became acquainted with the Wolf’s Lair, the Battle of Raseiniai was under way in western Lithuania; it was another critical early meeting between around 240 panzers and 750 Soviet tanks. Outmatched by three to one, the Germans were again victorious in the face of seemingly daunting odds. By 27 June 1941, they had destroyed over 700 of the Soviets’ 750 tanks near Raseiniai, a medieval Lithuanian town. The Luftwaffe also provided telling air support when it was needed.

Further south Lithuania’s capital, Vilnius, had easily been captured on 24 June 1941 and Kaunas, the country’s second largest city, capitulated that day too. Germany’s Army Group North, under Field Marshal Ritter von Leeb, was now positioned 600 miles from Moscow; yet his key objective was to seize the major Russian city of Leningrad closer to the north.

As a Blitzkrieg easily overcame Red Army resistance in Lithuania, an onlooking Hitler had been situated a mere 90 miles from the Lithuanian border at his Wolf’s Lair. In Hitler’s choice of headquarters across Europe, it was his desire to be as near the fighting as conceivably possible. Previously, as the Battle of France commenced (10 May–25 June 1940), Hitler’s compound, the Wolf’s Ravine (Wolfsschlucht), was erected in the Belgian village of Brûly-de-Pesche.

While the Nazi leader oversaw France’s swift and humiliating defeat, he became a resident for over two weeks at this Belgian hamlet. Brûly-de-Pesche is only five miles from the French northern frontier, and Paris was within comfortable driving distance.

Choice of location for the Wolf’s Lair was painstakingly assessed; in late 1940, construction began in the ancient and mysterious Masurian woods, near a small Prussian town called Rastenburg. The Wolf’s Lair was clear of urban centres and primary roads, while its entire complex covered 2.5 square miles. It was safeguarded by three security zones, and disguised by extensive netting that cleverly mimicked leaf cover when viewed from above.

Otto Skorzeny, the SS commando, wrote that

“I was ordered to the Wolfsschanze [Wolf’s Lair] nine times and also flew over it; it was so very well camouflaged from air attack that one could only see trees. The guarded access roads snaked through the forest, in such a way that I would have been unable to give the exact location of the Führer headquarters”.

Regardless of Hitler’s growing fears and precautions, not one bomb was dropped on the Wolf’s Lair, while his private secretary Traudl Junge later revealed “there was never more than a single aircraft hovering over the forest”. This is despite the fact that Hitler spent over 800 days immersed there.

As Germany’s victories mounted, the prevailing mood at the Wolf’s Lair became increasingly euphoric. At the end of June 1941, German forces had claimed a significant success when capturing Minsk, the sprawling capital of Belarus. By 11 July 1941, the Wehrmacht had conquered vast regions of Belarus, a state rivalling the size of Great Britain.

In doing so, the Nazis inflicted almost 420,000 casualties on Soviet divisions around the Belarusian capital, while the invaders lost only 12,000 men by comparison.

During fighting near Minsk, the Red Army further saw 4,800 of its tanks eliminated and up to 1,700 aircraft destroyed, while the Germans were shorn of just 100 panzers and 275 airplanes. The scale of victory is put into even sharper perspective when considering the Wehrmacht had a combined total of about 3,500 panzers, and little more than 2,000 warplanes.

While July 1941 proceeded, German infantrymen were pouring forward onto the very borders of Russia, taking the town of Ostrov on 4 July, in north-west Russia – followed, on 8 July, by their capturing Pskov 30 miles further north.

From the small city of Pskov, Moscow lay but 450 miles further east. As the world looked on in wonder, including the Americans and British, it seemed an eventuality the Nazis would cover these last few hundred miles, and overwhelm the Russian capital.

By 10 July 1941, the 13th Panzer Division (of Army Group South) had advanced to the Irpin River, just over 10 miles from Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine – a country with a rich agricultural base that would help sustain Germany’s foot soldiers. Yet it would not be for another nine weeks until Kiev itself fell, with the surrendering of almost 700,000 Soviet troops.

In the meantime, due to the incredible progression and devastation wrought, it was perhaps not surprising that on 8 July 1941 a boastful Hitler was telling propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, “The war in the east was in the main already won”. Hitler was simply echoing the views of his commanders.

As early as 3 July 1941 the 57-year-old Franz Halder, Chief of the Army General Staff, had written in his diary,

“So it’s really not saying too much, if I claim that the campaign against Russia has been won in 14 days”.

The experienced Halder was surely letting himself get carried away. In the autumn of 1942 Halder would be sacked by Hitler, due to their ongoing disagreements over Russian fighting capacity, with the dictator saying to him,

“We now need National Socialist ardour rather than professional ability to settle matters in the East. Obviously, I cannot expect this of you”.

Hitler replaced Halder with General Kurt Zeitzler, who was thought to be a genius in his ability to manoeuvre large formations across battlefields, and perceive danger. It was expected that Zeitzler would finally move German armies to where Hitler wanted them to go.

To be Continue…

Dec 7: The Truth About the Pearl Harbor Attack

DECEMBER 7, 1941

PEARL HARBOR ANNIVERSARY EDITORIAL

The Truth About the Pearl Harbor Attack

The Setting

1941: Globalist agents FDR and Churchill want desperately to drag the United States into World War II. This becomes all the more urgent after Hitler had launched “Operation Barbarossa” in June of the same year — a justified preemptive invasion of the Soviet Union which now threatens to overthrow Stalin and his evil Bolshevik regime in Moscow.

Knowing that American entry into the war would endanger Germany’s war efforts, Hitler ignores repeated U.S. provocations of Germany. To further discourage U.S. entry into the war, Germany, Italy, and Japan sign on to a mutual defense pact in September of 1940- The TriPartite Pact. War against one means war with all three.

Ironically, the TriPartite Pact will have the unintended effect of facilitating FDR’s treasonous scheme to embroil the U.S. into the conflict. As a “backdoor” to the European conflict (which Germany was winning) FDR and Churchill intensify their instigation of Japan. When the aggressive moves become too much for Japan to bear (oil embargo, closure of Panama Canal to Japanese shipping, U.S. battleships cruising through Japanese waters, direct assistance to the Chinese aggressors etc.) Japan decides the make its first direct move against the U.S. aggressor — by attacking Pearl Harbor (the U.S. naval base in the territory of Hawaii) on December 7, 1941 ….exactly as FDR had intended! As a result of the attack, the powerful pro-peace movement in America is silenced in an instant.

In the ensuing days, war declarations between the TriPartite allies and the US/UK alliance were exchanged.

1. Hitler and Goering meet with Japanese foreign minister. // 2. Japanese poster celebrates the DEFENSIVE TriPartite Pact.

With his famous theatrical flair, the diabolical FDR, acting “surprised”, delivers his  somber “Day of Infamy” speech to a confused and angry nation.

Exactly as FDR and the gang of Communists, Globalists, and Jews surrounding him had intended, the attack immediately put the pro-peace Charles Lindbergh, the “America First Movement” and the “Mothers Movement” out of business. Hence forward, the millions of patriotic Americans who had urged peace prior to Pearl Harbor would be ridiculed by Fake News and Fake Historians as “isolationists.”

1. Gullible young volunteers crowd military recruitment centers across America – 450,000 of these poor fools are destined to die in a war for International Jewry’s New World Order. // 2. The Five “Fighting Sullivan Brothers” volunteered after Pearl Harbor. They ALL died when the USS Juneau was sunk in November, 1942 — murdered by FDR.

But Japan tells a different story than the one spun by FDR and the Fake News — a story which (surprisingly) was printed once on page 2 of The New York Times on December 8, 1941, and has since disappeared into the black memory hole of forbidden history. Thanks to those of you who continue to support our monthly subscription fee for The New York Times Archives, The Real History Channel is pleased to bring you the actual text of Emperor Hirohito’s War Declaration — a message which rings far truer than the lies of FDR and company.

TEXT OF HIROHITO’S WAR DECLARATION

By the grace of heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial, enjoin upon ye, our loyal and brave subjects:

We hereby declare war upon the United States of America and the British Empire. The men and officers of our Army and Navy shall do their utmost in prosecuting the war. Our public servants of various departments shall perform faithfully and diligently their respective duties; the entire nation with a united will shall mobilize their total strength so that nothing will miscarry in the attainment of our war aims.

To ensure the stability of East Asia, and to contribute to world peace is the farsighted policy which was formulated by our great illustrious Imperial Grandsire and our Great Imperial Sire succeeding him and which we lay constantly to heart. To cultivate friendship among nations and to enjoy prosperity in common with all nations, has always been the guiding principle of our Empire’s foreign policy. It has truly been unavoidable and far from our wishes that our Empire has been brought to cross swords with America and Britain. More than four years have passed since China, failing to comprehend the true intentions of our Empire, and recklessly courting trouble, disturbed the peace of East Asia and compelled our Empire to take up arms. Although there has been reestablished the National Government of China, with which Japan had effected neighborly intercourse and cooperation, the regime which has survived in Chungking, relying upon American and British protection, still continues its fratricidal opposition.

Eager for the realization of their inordinate ambition to dominate the Orient, both America and Britain, giving support to the Chungking regime, have aggravated the disturbances in East Asia. Moreover these two powers, inducing other countries to follow suit, increased military preparations on all sides of our Empire to challenge us. They have obstructed by every means our peaceful commerce and finally resorted to a direct severance of economic relations, menacing greatly the existence of our Empire.

Patiently have we waited and long have we endured, in the hope that our Government might retrieve the situation in peace. But our adversaries, showing not the least spirit of conciliation, have unduly delayed a settlement; and in the meantime they have intensified the economic and political pressure to compel our Empire to submission. This trend of affairs, would, if left unchecked, not only nullify our Empire’s efforts of many years for the sake of the stabilization of East Asia, but also endanger the very existence of our nation. The situation being such as it is, our Empire, for its existence and self defense has no other recourse but to appeal to arms and to crush every obstacle in its path.

The hallowed spirits of our Imperial Ancestors, guarding us from above, we rely upon the loyalty and courage of our subjects in the confident expectation that the task bequeathed by our forefathers will be carried forward, and that the sources of evil will be speedily eradicated, and an enduring peace be established in East Asia, preserving thereby the glory of our Empire.”

December 8, 1941

“We face the delicate question of the diplomatic fencing to be done so as to be sure Japan is put into the wrong and makes the first bad move. … The question was how we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot.”

“When the news first came that Japan had attacked us my first feeling was of relief that … a crisis had come in a way which would unite all our people. This continued to be my dominant feeling in spite of the news of catastrophes which quickly developed.”

The Lie Of The German Atomic Bomb Program

NOVEMBER 04, 2022

NY Times: Did Nazis Produce These Uranium Cubes? Researchers Look for an Answer.

Determining whether the cubes were produced by Nazi Germany could lead to more questions, such as whether the Nazis could have had enough to create a critical reaction.

As if the contemporary bogeymen of Stupid-19 and the Climate Con weren’t enough to keep the subjects of the overlapping kingdoms of Normiedom & Libtardia in a state of obedient bewilderment and 24/7 horror, now comes the recent “discovery” that the big bad “Nazis”  of 77 years ago might have been closer to developing “the bomb” than we had known. Oy vey!

From the article:

“The failure of Nazi Germany’s nuclear program is well established in the historical record. What is less documented is how a handful of uranium cubes, possibly produced by the Nazis, ended up at laboratories in the United States.  Scientists are working to determine whether three uranium cubes they have in their possession were produced by Germany’s failed nuclear program during World War II.  The answer could lead to more questions, such as whether the Nazis might have had enough uranium to create a critical reaction. And, if the Nazis had been successful in building an atomic bomb, what would that have meant for the war?

Just to set the record straight, Germany’s  underfunded and mostly pre-war research into nuclear fission has got nothing to do with any non-existent scheme to build such demonic weapons. Had Hitler wanted to, he could have built heavy bombers and carpet-bombed / fire-bombed London civilians from high above the cloud line — just as the British Royal Air Force had done to many German cities. The fact that the Germans refused to do mass genocide from the sky is all the proof one needs to debunk the persistent Jewish lie of a “Nazi Atomic Bomb” program.

The original “Weapons of Mass Destruction”  scare slander was actually vomited out by (((the usual suspects))) shortly before the Polish-instigated outbreak of the 1939 German-Polish War which morphed into World War 2. Mediocre Marxist mathematician (note that I did not say “scientist”)Albert Einstein had left Germany for America shortly after “The Nazis”  came to power in 1933.  Though  dismissed  by  scientific  great  Nikola  Tesla  as  a  “long-haired  crank”  (in  a private  poem),  Einstein  had  achieved  world  fame  in  the  (((press)))  for  his bizarre space-bending, time-warping  “Theory  of  Relativity” — which  some researchers now claim was  plagiarized from the work of earlier physicists. 

Einstein was an outspoken advocate of world government and became linked to more Communist front groups than one could shake a hammer and sickle at.   While  Europe  was  still  at  peace,  he  (at  the  urging  of  lesser  known  scientists) wrote  a  letter  to  FDR  in  which  he  described  the  power  of a  potential atomic  bomb.  He  falsely  insinuated  that  Germany  was  already  working  on  such  a  weapon,  and  urged  FDR  to  fund  research  into  building  atomic  bombs.  Though  not  stated so directly in the letter, it is clear that Mr. Einstein was hoping to murder  millions  of Germans  with  this  devilish  weapon.  The  “Manhattan  Project”  eventually grew out of this effort.

The 1942-1945 Manhattan Project, led by the U.S. with participation from Britain,  would  result  in  the  first  atomic  bomb.  From  the start,  there were  concerns  about  the  Project’s  security.  Physicist  Gregory  Breit,  an  important  researcher,  quit  in  1942  because  of  concerns  over  lax  security  procedures.  The Communist Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer then took  over Breit’s research role,  and  was  then appointed  to  head  the  secret  weapons  lab  at  Los  Alamos, New Mexico.  Under his leadership, Soviet spies and Communist  sympathizers infested the Project (Enrico Fermi, Klaus Fuchs et al).

Following up on the Einstein-Szilard lie of a few years earlier, in August of 1943, Oppenheimer wrote: “It is possible that the Germans will have, by the end of this year, enough material accumulated to make a large number of gadgets [atomic bombs] which they will release at the same time on England, Russia, and this country.” (here

It was this horrible fear of an imaginary German bomb project which was used to justify the expense of the vast effort, and cover up the Satanic blood lust of the Jewish Mafia that was hell-bent on exterminating and then sterilizing Germans to the point of extinction.. The effort is still in effect today — only it’s in the form of engineered low birth rates and mass Turd World immigration.

1945 – 1950 THE HORRIBLE AFTERMATH OF WORLD WAR II

AUGUST, 1945

‘IKE’ PARTIES IN MOSCOW WITH ‘UNCLE JOE’ WHILE MILLIONS ARE BEING RAPED AND MURDERED BY THE SOVIETS

“The striking aspect of the visit was the lavish reception the Russians gave the
commander of a foreign nation’s army. Georgi Zhukov, General Eisenhower’s
Soviet counterpart in Berlin, met us at Tempelhof Airport for the flight to Moscow in
Ike’s C-54 four-engine aircraft. Zhukov, as the official host, was the soul of
hospitality and congeniality. By this time the two commanders…had become friends,
as close of friends as public life permits.
In Moscow the party first attended a parade. Significantly, my father was invited to
undergo a four-hour ordeal atop Vladimir Lenin’s tomb with Zhukov and Stalin. He
was, I later learned, the first foreigner ever accorded that honor. One evening,
The entire party was entertained at dinner, with Stalin himself officiating.”

  • John S. D. Eisenhower (son and aide of Ike)

FINAL DEATH COUNT OF WORLD WAR II AND AFTERMATH
TOTAL KILLED: 40,000,000 +
AMERICANS KILLED: 420,000 +
BRITISH KILLED: 400,000 +
GERMANS KILLED: 12 – 15,000,000 +
ITALIAN KILLED: 450,000 +
FRENCH KILLED: 500,000 +
JAPANESE KILLED: 3,000,000 +
RUSSIANS KILLED: 5,000,000 + during war; 7,000,000 + disappeared or killed
afterwards (The official Soviet figure of 20,000,000 total dead cannot be substantiated and does
not differentiate between war dead and Stalin’s victims)
U.S. POW’s kidnapped by Stalin: *25,000 / 100’s executed
*Liberated from German POW camps in the east, shipped to Siberian slave labor
camps (Gulags), and then abandoned by US Government.

AUGUST, 1945

EISENHOWER AND HOLLYWOOD PRODUCERS ISSUE A FAKE HOLOCAUST ATROCITY FILM

American audiences are horrified by newsreel footage of the ‘Nazi’ concentration
camps. One full-length film, authorized by General Eisenhower, shows the homicidal
“gas chambers” of Dachau, shrunken heads of inmates, and lamp shades that were
made from human flesh at the request of a camp commander’s wife. German civilians
were rounded up and forced to view these fake props. To add further credibility to
such claims, the film includes images of the sworn affidavits of U.S. military
officials.
As it turns out, and as even Jewish “scholars” of the “Holocaust” now openly admit,
the shrunken heads were fakes, the lamp shades were made of goat leather, and there
were never any homicidal “gassings” at the Dachau camp. (3) But by the time these
were admitted as hoaxes (40 years later) the damage to the German reputation had
already been done.

1945 – 1950

EUROPE BECOMES A ‘SAVAGE CONTINENT’

World War II in Europe may have officially ended in 1945, but the period of anarchy
and civil war that follows will last for 5 more years. Across Europe, landscapes are

ravaged, entire cities ruined, and millions of people are homeless. Institutions such as
the police, the media, transport, local and national government are either gone or
badly weakened. Crime rates soar; economies collapse; and hungry women and girls
turn to prostitution as the European population hovers on the brink of starvation.
Communists, liberals and Jews impose a cruel vengeance upon their helpless prey.
German civilians and their anti-Communist allies everywhere are rounded up,
raped, sodomized, drowned in cesspools, tortured, genitally mutilated, burned
alive, and executed.
Internment camps are reopened and filled with anti-Communists and Germans. After
being starved to death, photos of the prisoners are then passed off as victims of
Hitler’s “Holocaust”. Massacres and civil wars follow in Greece, Yugoslavia,
Poland, and parts of Italy and France. In the greatest acts of ethnic cleansing the
world has ever seen, tens of millions are expelled from their ancestral homelands as
Allied occupiers look the other way.

1944 – 1945

RED ARMY RAPES 2 MILLION GERMAN WOMEN!

As the Red Army rolls into Germany, Stalin’s Jewish chief propagandist, Ilya
Ehrenberg, encourages the soldiers to rape and kill German women. Ehrenberg’s
leaflets declare:

The orgy of violence and rape is one of the ghastliest episodes in human history. Two
million German females ranging in age from 8-80 will be gang-raped, sodomized
and beaten badly, often in view of their children or family members. Some
are penetrated with broken bottles and bayonets in wild orgies of drunken violence.
Even the terrified women who flee to churches and hospitals are hunted down and
gang raped. Nuns, little girls, and elderly women are infected with venereal diseases.
There are cases of breasts being cut off and victims set on fire after being raped. The
most notable offenders are the mainly Jewish NKVD rear guard troops and the
Mongoloid troops from the Asian Republics of the far eastern reaches of the USSR.
Rather than submit to the horror, thousands of German women commit suicide.
Eisenhower, Truman, and the Zionist Press are fully aware of the monstrous horror
that the man they all refer to as ‘Uncle Joe’ is inflicting upon these poor women.

1945 – 46

‘IKE’ MURDERS 1.5 MILLION GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR!
More than one year after the German surrender, General Eisenhower still holds
millions of German Prisoners-of-War. The men are inhumanely crowded into camps
without latrines, exposed to the elements and underfed. Germans dig holes for shelter
and even take to eating grass!
American guards who attempt to help the prisoners face disciplinary action. German
civilians try to bring food and blankets to the men but are shot at by guards. Unlike
Germany’s wartime internment camps which were open to international inspection,
Eisenhower issues an order stating that Red Cross officials are not to be given
access to the camps. As disease, exposure, and hunger take their toll, the German
losses mount daily. By the end of their cruel incarceration, as many as 1.5 million
German prisoners will have died a slow and torturous death.

1945 – 50

STALIN MURDERS AS MANY AS 1 MILLION GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR!

Not to be outdone by Eisenhower, Stalin’s mistreatment of German POW’s (as well
as his own) is heartbreaking. Germans were often summarily executed, paraded like
animals and, up until the 1950’s and perhaps beyond, worked to death in Siberia.

1945 – 1949

10 MILLION GERMANS EXPELLED FROM HOMES / 2 MILLION DIE / MASSIVE BRAINWASH CAMPAIGN ENSUES

After the war, the area of Germany historically known as Prussia ceases to exist. It is
mostly transferred to Soviet occupied Poland and to the Soviet Union itself. Seven
million Germans are expelled from their homes and forced to migrate west. Still
more German territory is given to Soviet occupied Czechoslovakia, with 3 million
more Germans expelled.
The refugees are often attacked and raped by the Red Army as well as Jewish
and Communist gangs. Two million will die during the forced migrations, and about
500,000 more are interned in Soviet labor camps. Displaced Jews are given
preference in seizing and occupying the stolen homes of German refugees.
As part of a psychological re-programming effort known as “De-Nazification”, the
German people are deliberately subjected to hunger, mental trauma, and
homelessness. Starving German women sell their bodies to American soldiers in
exchange for a few cans of food.
To add final insult to injury, the old debt payments originating from the post World
War I Treaty of Versailles will be re-instituted in 1948, and not paid off until 2010!

DECEMBER 21, 1945

ANTI-RED, ANTI-ZIONIST GENERAL GEORGE PATTON IS ASSASSINATED (‘Auto Accident’)

General Eisenhower needed General Patton in order to win the war. But the
outspoken Patton often bucked Ike, complaining openly about his halt orders (which
stopped Patton from liberating Eastern Europe before the Soviets could get there)
and ignoring Ike’s orders to continue holding German prisoners after the war.
Patton urges his superiors to allow his army to evict the weakened Soviets from
Europe. In letters to his wife, he expresses his disgust over the cruel extermination of
the German people, the Red Army rapes, and what he describes as Jewish Communist
efforts to advance Soviet influence. Patton’s “insubordination” causes Ike to
remove him from command. In one of those letters, Patton reveals that upon leaving
the Army and resettling in America, he will openly fight against the treason.

He never gets the chance…Patton is hospitalized following a strange, low impact
auto accident near Mannheim, Germany. The American icon dies in the hospital two
weeks later, apparently the victim of an assassination order, issued by Ike or higher.

1945-1947

‘OPERATION KEELHAUL’ / IKE DELIVERS 5 MILLION RUSSIAN POW’s, SS MEN & REFUGEES INTO STALIN’S ARMS
Stalin brands Russian POW’s captured by Germany, and Russian refugees who fled
west with the retreating Germans, as traitors. At Yalta, FDR and Churchill had agreed
that Russian “traitors” and SS men should be sent to Stalin in exchange for American
& British POW’s “liberated” by the Soviets. General Eisenhower eagerly carries out
this atrocity; which was mockingly code named: “Operation Keelhaul” (after an old
naval punishment that involved tying a rope around a sailor and then dragging him
under the hull of a ship)!
Up to 3 million terrified Russian POW’s are forced at gunpoint onto trains and
trucks that bring them to their Soviet executioners. Many commit suicide.

U.S. troops, upon returning from the drop-off points, later report seeing rows of
bodies already hanging from the trees.
In separate operations, anti-Communist refugee families, who actually followed their
German protectors as they retreated from Russia, are also shipped back to “Uncle
Joe”, and subjected to special tortures, including rape of the women. As a final insult
from our “ally”, Stalin holds on to 25,000 American POW’s and 30,000 British,
sending them to his Siberian Gulags, and even summarily executing some.. Ike,
Churchill, and Truman are aware of the missing POW’s but say nothing!

MARCH 5, 1946

CHURCHILL DECLARES THAT AN ‘IRON CURTAIN’ HAS FALLEN OVER EUROPE

By 1946, it is clear that Stalin has no intention of allowing the occupied nations of
Eastern Europe to join the “European Family”. Nor is he interested in annexing the
USSR to a western-controlled New World Order. The Globalist love affair with the
Soviet Union ends in disillusion. Thus was born “The Cold War”.
The now ex-Prime Minister of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, who helped engineer
this disaster, delivers his famous “Iron Curtain” speech in Fulton, Missouri:
“an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the
capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin,
Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities
and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.”
Over the coming months and years, these nations, which had been given to Stalin at
Yalta, will fall, one-by-one, to Soviet backed Communist Parties in each nation. The
usual Red terror soon follows in each. General Patton had been right after all!

OCTOBER, 1946

NUREMBERG MILITARY TRIBUNALS SENTENCE GERMAN LEADERS TO DEATH

During the 1943 Tehran Conference, Joe Stalin had proposed executing 50,000
German staff officers after the war. FDR joked that 49,000 would do! The murderous
Allies were all in agreement that “trials” of Germany’s top leaders would take place
after the war.
When the show trials begin in 1945, an 8-panel tribunal (The Nuremberg Trials) is
seated (2 judges each from the US, UK, USSR, & France). The primary American
judge is Francis Biddle, of the Biddle Family that spawned the 19th century
American Central Bank Chairman, Nicholas Biddle.
Honorable German leaders are condemned as “war criminals” by governments that
carried out the Hamburg, Dresden and Tokyo fire-bombings, the sinking of the
Wilhelm Gustloff & the Goya, the forced return of Russian refugees & POW’s, the
starvation murders of 1.5 million German POW’s, the murders at Katyn Forest, the
mass raping of German women, and the dropping of atom bombs! Several hundred
prominent American and European political figures, writers, artists and
military men, including a young John F. Kennedy, condemns the trials.
Of the accused, 11 will hang, and 7 (including the peacemaking parachutist Rudolf
Hess) will receive long, or life prison terms. Herman Goering, Head of the
Luftwaffe (German Air Force) cheats his executioners by taking poison in his jail
cell. It is likely that a sympathetic American guard helped Goering by smuggling the
poison into his cell.
But simple murder wasn’t enough. The Allied executioners used a “short drop”
instead of a neck-breaking “long drop”. The victims thus died a longer death due to
strangulation. Additionally, the trapdoor was too small, such that several of the men
suffered bleeding head injuries when they hit the sides of the trapdoor while falling.
Adding final insult to injury, the bodies were cremated and scattered over a river,
denying the families the right of burial.

1946-1948

ZIONIST TERROR SPREADS IN PALESTINE AS THE NEW ‘STATE OF ISRAEL’ COMES INTO BEING

With Britain tired, weakened and in debt from the war, the opportunistic Zionists
escalate their attacks against the British protectors of Palestine. It was the Brits who
had stolen Palestine for the Zionists’ sake after World War I, but now Britain is to be
betrayed and chased out of Palestine. The deadly bombing of the King David Hotel
(1946) in Jerusalem targets the offices of the British Military, killing 91 people.
In 1948, after the three Allied powers of the War have recognized the new State of
Israel, the massacre at Deir Yassin targets innocent Palestinian villagers, scaring them
to flee from their villages. The Irgun terror gang, headed by future Israeli Prime
Minister & Nobel Peace Prize winner Menachem Begin, is responsible for both.
Due to sympathy gained from the fictitious “6 million” dead of World War II,
Israel’s brutal dispossession and displacement of the Palestinians is tolerated.

JUNE, 1947

GLOBALIST ‘MARSHALL PLAN’ IS PROPOSED

The Marshall Plan is a massive US Foreign Aid scheme for post-war Western
Europe. The Globalists use every propaganda trick in the book to cleverly sell the
expensive scheme to the anti-Communist US Senate, and to a gullible American
public.
The Marshall Scam is hard-sold as an “economic recovery program” needed to
prevent nations from “falling to Communism”. The scheme is named after, and
announced by, recently named Secretary of State, General George Marshall –
the “war hero.”
The “poison pill” of the Marshall Scam is the sub-group that it creates in order to

administer the aid package: The Organization for European Economic Co-
operation.

The OEEC consists of 18 nations. It is the “embryo” of the coming European
Common Market as well as today’s socialist, single currency European Union.

1945 – PRESENT

THE 70 YEAR OCCUPATION & BRAINWASHING OF GERMANY
From the days of the post war “de-Nazification” of Germany, throughout the 45 year
Communist rule over East Germany, as well as the 70-year U.S. domination of a
united Germany that continues to this day, perhaps the greatest crime of all is the
psychological rape of three subsequent generations of Germans.
From an early age, German school children are taught to hate the great
accomplishments of previous generations and wallow in self-loathing. Most pathetic,
Germans today fervently believe all the lies told about “Nazi” Germany as they
continue to hunt down and imprison “holocaust deniers” and innocent 90-year old SS
men for “war crimes”.
Those Germans who are not full of self-loathing are too afraid to speak up, lest the
occupation governments of Germany or Austria throw them in jail. Many Germans
today actually enjoy self-flagellation! It’s like a woman who has been raped and
battered to near death, blaming herself and apologetically groveling before the
perpetrator.

WHY HAVE COUNTRIES BANNED “HOLOCAUST DENIAL”?
Truth is its own defense. It does not require laws to protect it. Only lies do. The fact
that so many countries now ban the practice of “Holocaust Denial”, is alone evidence
that something isn’t right about the “official story”.

1960

WINNER’S HISTORY! THE ‘RISE AND FALL OF THE THIRD REICH’ IS PUBLISHED


After having received what he calls a “generous grant” from the New York-based
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), American newspaper hack and former CBS
mouthpiece William Shirer publishes his “definitive” and “comprehensive” history
of World War II, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. In the book’s opening
acknowledgement, Shirer thanks “the Council” – whose Globalist members were the
very ones that engineered the war in the first place!
Shirer’s Rise and Fall is heavy on the empty verbiage and page-count (1,245!), but
extremely light on essential facts. Weaving truths with half truths and outright lies,
while sprinkling in a few seemingly objective, even pro-German nuggets of truth;
Shirer skillfully paints a deceptive facade; one which any reader of The Bad War
should now be able to easily crack open.
The Jewish publishing giant Simon & Schuster publishes the book, and the Jewish
press hypes it to the stars. Shirer becomes wealthy beyond his wildest dreams. His
putrid package of propaganda remains, to this day, the “go to” book for those who
think they know anything about World War II. What a joke!

CLOSING STATEMENT

World War II, or ‘The Good War’ as modern day court-historian refer to it – is the
gift that keeps on giving – giving us problems that is! This tragedy, and its aftermath,
haunt humanity to this day, and will continue to well into the foreseeable future.
Out of the aftermath of World War II comes the Cold War, the Korean War, the Viet
Nam War, the wars and ongoing problems in the Middle East, the financial schemes
and distress caused by the IMF and the World Bank, the framework of the tyrannical
and corrupt European Union, and so many other problems of the modern day.
The Bad War was a complete disaster for the forces of civilization, stability, virtue,
culture, and independent nationalism of blood-related kinfolk…But it was a total
triumph for the overlapping dark forces of Globalism, debt-based “Crony
Capitalism’, World Communism, misguided liberalism and Zionism.

Behold what the victorious “good guys” have wrought in the days since that tragic war.
Europe, and by extension America, Canada and Australia, no longer exist as peoples with
common history, heritage or values. The Globalists have reduced the beloved “Europa”
of Hitler into a rootless, culture-less, godless, gender-less, alienated, infertile, pornographic,
multi-cultural, homosexual mish-mash of mentally medicated tax and debt slaves.
The true European essence that was once rooted in places like ancient Athens, Rome, Florence,
Paris, London, Madrid, Dresden; and grand historical personages such as Plato, Aristotle,
Pericles, Jesus, Marcus Aurelius, Charlemagne, Mozart, Kant, Dante, Shakespeare, Jefferson;
and vital institutions such as family, farm, folk, community, church and civic groups, is, if not totally “gone with the wind”, certainly in the process of coming off its moorings.
Collectively, the people of the West are no longer really even ‘peoples’ defined by
common cultures, traditions, bloodlines and sets of eternal values. We are economies
defined solely by the Gross Domestic Product.

Conchita Wurst: Austrian “transsexual”
wins European Song Contest in 2014

As individuals, we are no longer persons defined by our virtues and intellects. We are
soulless machines – disposable, pill-popping, TV-addicted “human resources” and
“tax payers” defined solely by our “net worth” and ability to “consume” – a euphemism for
going into debt to buy crap that we don’t need.
In a broader philosophical sense, that’s what World War II was all about. It was a titanic
struggle between the forces of classical Europa (as well as historic Japan) and those of the

culturally degenerate and predatory Capitalist-Communist hybrid New World Order in which

we live in, no, exist in today. And the true “good guys” lost!
There is nothing that can be done to undo the evil folly of the past; but by correcting the
misinformation associated with it, we can, perhaps, at least avoid more bloodbaths in the future. Make no mistake; this dirty game is still going on and may one day culminate in World War III; pitting the NWO against the “disobedient” sovereign powers of the new Russia and China. Only the players change; the great game does not.

Waddesdon Manor in England is just one of
the many Rothschild estates throughout
Europe.
Inset: Awestruck groupies Warren Buffet
and Arnold Swarzenagger visit Lord Jacob
Rothschild (right) at his Waddesdon Palace.

End

1941 – 1945 WORLD WAR II (From U.S Entry to the Surrender of Japan)

DECEMBER 7, 1941

JAPAN TAKES FDR’s BAIT / ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR BRINGS THE U.S. INTO THE WAR

While issuing the final provocations of Japan, FDR and his Military Chairman,
George Marshall, also set the actual bait for the Japanese fish to bite. The tasty bait
that these two traitors are dangling is the heart of America’s Pacific fleet, deliberately
left vulnerable at the naval base of Pearl Harbor, in the U.S. territory of Hawaii.
By now, Japan knows that war with America is coming. The Japanese high command,
in the hopes of gaining an early advantage, decides to strike as damaging a blow to
the U.S. Navy as possible. Because the U.S. and Britain have each cracked Japan’s
naval communication codes, FDR and Churchill both have advance knowledge of
the impending “surprise attack”; but no specific warning is sent to the
Commanders at Pearl Harbor.
The attack kills 2402 US sailors, and ignites press frenzy and a wave of patriotic
fervor. The “isolationists” are silenced for good and the America First Committee
disbands. FDR and the Jewish Mafia around him will finally have their 2nd world war.

DECEMBER 8-11, 1941
WAR DECLARATIONS EXCHANGED

The day after Pearl Harbor, Congress declares war on Japan. Even the “isolationists”
cannot resist the war fever caused by what FDR calls “an unprovoked attack”.
Japan also issues a declaration. Germany and Italy then fulfill their Tripartite Treaty
obligation to Japan, by announcing that a state of war now exists between the Axis
nations and the U.S. (though they have neither the intention nor the means to actually
cross the Atlantic and attack the U.S. mainland). Congress then follows with
additional declarations upon Germany and Italy.
Again, from the diary of FDR’s War (Defense) Secretary, Henry Stimson, we learn
that Stimson’s immediate and “dominant feeling” was not one of sorrow or outrage
over the lost lives at Pearl Harbor, but rather of relief:

EXCERPTS OF EMPEROR HIROHITO’S WAR DECLARATION

“….We hereby declare war upon the United States of
America and the British Empire.
To ensure the stability of East Asia, and to contribute to
world peace, is the farsighted policy which was formulated
by our great illustrious Imperial Grandsire and Great
Imperial Sire … To cultivate friendship among nations and
to enjoy prosperity in common with all nations has always
been the guiding principle of our Empire’s foreign policy”.

It has truly been unavoidable and far from our wishes that our Empire has been
brought to cross swords with America and Britain. More than four years have
passed since China, failing to comprehend the true intentions of our Empire, and
recklessly courting trouble, disturbed the peace of East Asia and compelled our
Empire to take up arms. Although there has been reestablished the National
Government of China, with which Japan had effected neighborly intercourse and
cooperation, the regime which has survived in Chungking, relying upon American
and British protection, still continues its fratricidal opposition.
Eager for the realization of their ambition to dominate the Orient, both America
and Britain, giving support to the Chungking regime, have aggravated the
disturbances in East Asia. Moreover these two powers, inducing other countries to
follow suit, increased military preparations on all sides of our Empire to challenge
us. They have obstructed by every means our peaceful commerce and finally resorted to a direct severance of economic relations, menacing greatly the existence of our Empire.
Patiently have we waited and long have we endured, in the hope that our Government might retrieve the situation in peace. But our adversaries, showing not the least spirit of conciliation, have unduly delayed a settlement; and in the meantime they have intensified the economic and political pressure to compel our Empire to submission.
This trend of affairs would, if left unchecked, not only nullify our Empire’s efforts of
many years for the sake of the stabilization of East Asia, but also endanger the very
existence of our nation. The situation being as it is, our Empire, for its existence and
self-defense has no other recourse but to appeal to arms, and to crush all obstacles
in its path.

December 8, 1941

EXCERPTS FROM HITLER’S POST-PEARL HARBOR SPEECH

“Starting in November 1938, he (Roosevelt) began systematically and consciously to sabotage every possibility of a European peace policy. In public he hypocritically claimed to be interested in peace while at the same time he threatened every country that was ready to pursue a policy of peaceful understanding by blocking credits, economic reprisals, calling in loans, and so forth. In this regard, the reports of the Polish ambassadors in Washington, London, Paris and Brussels provide a shocking insight. This man increased his campaign of incitement in January 1939. In a message to the U.S. Congress he threatened to take every measure short of war against the
authoritarian countries.”

I will overlook as meaningless the insulting attacks and rude statements by this so- called President against me personally. That he calls me a gangster is particularly meaningless, since this term did not originate in Europe, where such characters are uncommon, but in America. And aside from that, I simply cannot feel insulted by Mr. Roosevelt because I regard him, like his predecessor Woodrow Wilson, as mentally unsound.
We know that this man, with his Jewish supporters, has operated against Japan in the
same way. I don’t need to go into that here. The same methods were used in that case
as well. This man first incites to war, and then he lies about its causes and makes
baseless allegations. He repugnantly wraps himself in a cloak of Christian hypocrisy, while at the same time slowly but very steadily leading humanity into war. And finally, as an old Freemason, he calls upon God to witness that his actions are honorable. His shameless misrepresentations of truth and violations of law are unparalleled in history.
I am sure that all of you have regarded it as an act of deliverance that a country
[Japan] has finally acted to protest against all this in the very way that this man had actually hoped for, and which should not surprise him now [the attack on Pearl Harbor]. After years of negotiating with this deceiver, the Japanese government finally had its fill of being treated in such a humiliating way. All of us, the German people and, I believe, all other decent people around the world as well, regard this with deep appreciation.
We know the power behind Roosevelt. It is the same eternal Jew that believes that
his hour has come to impose the same fate on us that we have all seen and
experienced with horror in Soviet Russia. We have gotten to know firsthand the
Jewish paradise on earth. Millions of German soldiers have personally seen the land
where this international Jewry has destroyed and annihilated people and property.
Perhaps the President of the United States does not understand this. If so, that only
speaks for his intellectual narrow-mindedness.
And we know that his entire effort is aimed at this goal: Even if we were not allied
with Japan, we would still realize that the Jews and their Franklin Roosevelt intend
to destroy one state after another. The German Reich of today has nothing in common with the Germany of the past. For our part, we will now do what this provocateur has been trying to achieve for years. And not just because we are allied with Japan, but rather because Germany and Italy with their present leaderships have the insight and strength to realize that in this historic period the existence or non-existence of nations is being determined, perhaps for all time. What this other world has in store for us is clear. They were able to bring the democratic Germany of the past to starvation, and they seek to destroy the National Socialist Germany of
today.
When Mr. Churchill and Mr. Roosevelt declare that they want to one day build a new social order, that’s about the same as a bald-headed barber recommending a tonic guaranteed to make hair grow. Rather than incite war, these gentlemen, who live in the most socially backward countries, should have concerned themselves with their own unemployed people. They have enough misery and poverty in their own countries to keep themselves busy insuring a just distribution of food there. As far as the German nation is concerned, it doesn’t need charity, either from Mr. Churchill or Mr. Roosevelt — but it does demand its rights. And it will do what it must to insure its
right to life, even if a thousand Churchill and Roosevelt conspire together to prevent it.”

December 11, 1941

DECEMBER, 1942 – 1945

SUPER SECRET MANHATTAN PROJECT INFESTED WITH COMMUNIST SPIES

The Manhattan Project is an effort, led by the U.S. with participation from Britain,

which will result in the first atomic bomb. The project grew out of the Einstein-
Szilard letter to FDR in 1939. The effort had started out on a small scale later that

year, and by war’s end will eventually employ 130,000 people at 30 locations. Three
‘secret cities” will house 100,000 workers, all of them sworn to secrecy, and most of
whom are ignorant of “the big picture”.
From the start, there are concerns about the Project’s security. Physicist Gregory
Breit, an important researcher, quits in 1942 because of concerns over lax security
procedures. The Jewish Communist Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer takes
over Breit’s research, and is then appointed to head the secret weapons lab at Los

Alamos, New Mexico. Under his leadership, Soviet spies and Communist
sympathizers infest the Project (Enrico Fermi, Klaus Fuchs etc).
As Oppenheimer “looks the other way”, Red spies pass America’s secrets into Stalin’s
hands. In 1954, Oppenheimer’s security clearance will be revoked. But by that
time, The Soviets have already stolen much of the “formula” for the A-bomb.

FEBRUARY, 1942

FDR ORDERS LOYAL AMERICANS OF JAPANESE DESCENT TO BE PLACED IN INTERNMENT CAMPS

FDR’s Executive Order 9066 condemns 110,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry to
serve the rest of the war years in prison camps. Of those interned, 62% are actual
American citizens.
Shortly thereafter, Executive Order 9095 freezes their assets. German-American and
Italian-American families are also interned in camps, though in lesser numbers.
Unlike Germany’s wartime internment of Jews (who were generally hostile towards
Germany), terrorist Partisans, thieving gypsies, and other assorted Reds; FDR’s
internments are of law abiding, peaceful, and patriotic citizens loyal to America.
The internments are as unjustified as they are unnecessary.

1942 – 1945

“ROSIE THE RIVETER” IS WORKED AND RATIONED LIKE A DOG TO SUPPORT THE WAR EFFORT

The commonly-held economic fallacies that war is good for the economy and that
World War II pulled America out of the Great Depression are based on ignorance;
nothing more. War is waste; plain and simple. The increased productivity (Gross
Domestic Product) and decreased unemployment associated with a wartime slave
economy benefit only the industry bosses who own the factories and the bankers
financing the new spending. The goods that are churned out do not benefit the
working public because they have to be shipped to the soldiers overseas; in many
cases to be destroyed.
World War II was a time of great sacrifice for both the American men who were
compelled to fight, bleed and die, as well as for “Rosie the Riveter” on the home
front. As consumers, the women who were herded into buzzing factories faced
shortages of everything from metals to quality food and clothes.
The U.S., British, and Soviet armies sucked up the manufactured “goods” while
Americans struggled. Car bumpers were actually made of wood during these years!
Propaganda posters everywhere told Americans it was their patriotic duty to work
like animals and to go without. The suckers of “the greatest generation” believed it
and never complained.

1942 – 1945

AMERICA’S RIDICULOUS WAR PROPAGANDA

JUNE 4-7, 1942

U.S. VICTORIOUS OVER JAPAN IN THE ‘BATTLE OF MIDWAY’
The Battle of Midway is the most important naval battle of the Pacific Ocean
campaign. The U.S. Navy, under the command of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz,
decisively defeats the Japanese, inflicting irreparable damage upon the Japanese fleet.
After Midway, Japan’s Pacific defense perimeter of islands steadily shrinks as Japan
cannot replace its lost ships and aircraft as fast as the U.S. can.
Though Midway marks a turning point, the U.S. will sustain much more casualties as
the Japanese tenaciously defend their Pacific perimeter for many months to come.

JULY, 1942 – FEBRUARY, 1943
THE BLOODY BATTLE OF STALINGRAD

The Battle of Stalingrad between the Germans and the Soviets was fought for
control of the strategically vital Russian city that Stalin named after himself (today
known as Volgograd). It will go down in history as the bloodiest battle ever, with
combined deaths of nearly 2 million. Stalin’s refusal to pull the Red Army out of the
city leads to a long siege and great suffering for the hungry residents.
After the German offensive manages to capture most of the city, the U.S. Lend
Lease-equipped Red Army wears the Germans down with bloody house-to-house
fighting. Brainwashed and inflamed by the NKVD’s false atrocity propaganda, much
of the city’s civilian population fiercely resists the Germans as well. As intended, this
“false flag” terror enflames the civilian population against the Germans. The losses
suffered by the Germans will make victory in Russia impossible.

NOVEMBER, 1942

OPERATION TORCH / ALLIES BATTLE THE GERMANS IN NORTH AFRICA

A full year after U.S. entry into the war, the Germans are finally confronted during
Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa (Algeria, Tunisia,
Morocco). It is facilitated by French Generals who switched loyalty from the
nationalist Marshal Petain’s Vichy France to the Globalist/Communist side of
General Charles de Gaulle (self-exiled in England).
The politically appointed and grossly unqualified General Dwight D. Eisenhower
(“Ike”) is given command of the Allied force which sails from England. But it is the
military genius of General George Patton that ultimately bails out the incompetent
and envious Eisenhower. Patton’s Army successfully overcomes the German
forces, led by General Erwin Rommel (The Desert Fox).
By May of 1943, the Germans will have evacuated Northern Africa as they prepare to
defend the “soft underbelly of Europe” in southern Italy.

JANUARY, 1943

CASABLANCA CONFERENCE / ALLIES: WAR WILL CONTINUE UNTIL UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER!

FDR, Churchill, and the exiled “‘Free French” Generals Henri Giraud and Charles de
Gaulle meet together at the Casablanca Conference (Morocco/North Africa). FDR
announces a policy of “unconditional surrender” for Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Churchill agrees to the policy.
Unconditional surrender means the Allies expect the Axis nations to not only
stop fighting, but to also hand over complete political, educational, military and
media control to the invading Allied armies. This brutal hard-line policy of
complete subjugation inspires the Japanese and Germans to fight harder and longer.

JANUARY – MAY, 1943

THE TIDE TURNS AGAINST GERMANY

The opening months of 1943 mark the turning point in the war. The combination of
America’s awesome naval, air, and land power, a 3-front war, Jewish and Red
Partisan guerilla war, merciless air bombardment of German civilians, and a massive
Red Army armed to the teeth by American manufacturing power, all combine to take
a heavy toll on Germany.
General Friedrich Paulus requests that Hitler allow the 6th Army at Stalingrad to
surrender. Hitler, knowing what the stakes were for Germany and Europe, and
knowing that Stalin would kill any prisoners, orders Paulus to hold firm.
In February, the cowardly general finally surrenders his army to the tender mercy of
the Stalin-Kaganovich death cult. About 35,000 of the men under Paulus’s command
had already been evacuated from the front. The remaining 91,000 are marched off to
Soviet slave camps. Only 6,000 of them ever returned home.
Paulus eventually sells out to the Soviets altogether, joining the ‘National Committee
for Free Germany’ and urging German troops to defy orders and surrender. After
testifying at the post-war Nuremberg show-trials for the Soviets, he was released and
spent the rest of his life as a mouthpiece for Communist East Germany.
In May, the campaign in North Africa ends as German troops evacuate. That same
month, Admiral Donitz removes all German U-boats from the Atlantic after 41 subs
are sunk in just 3 weeks! Germany is now limited to playing defense as the Allies
slowly tighten the Globalist noose around Hitler’s Reich.

JULY, 1943

‘OPERATION GOMORRAH’ / THE FIREBOMBING OF HAMBURG BURNS OR SUFFOCATES 42,000 GERMAN CIVILIANS!
The Firebombing of Hamburg creates a tornado of fire so intense; it actually lifts
people off of the streets and into the fire. Those who are not burned to death suffocate
in shelters as the fire above sucks up all the oxygen.
Hundreds of US and UK aircraft feed the inferno with wave after wave of incendiary
bombings. As a sick joke, the demonic planners of the genocide of Hamburg actually
code named the arson attack “Operation Gomorrah”, after the Hebrew Bible story of
the cities which God destroyed by fire and brimstone.(Sodom & Gomorrah)
Operation Gomorrah deploys 3,000 aircraft and 9,000 tons of bombs. It kills 42,000
people, with an equal number injured. Indeed, more Germans died on that fateful
night in Hamburg than the total number of British civilians killed during five
years of war! One million traumatized German refugees flee the city in which
250,000 homes were destroyed.

1943

CHURCHILL’S BENGAL FAMINE KILLS 2,000,000 INDIANS
While famines were not uncommon in India, largely because of droughts or
monsoons, the 1943 tragedy in Bengal has the unmistakable fingerprints of the mad
dog Churchill on it.
In the prior year, when Japan occupied Burma, an important rice exporter, the British
bought up massive amounts of rice and hoarded it. Churchill then orders the diversion
of food away from India and toward British troops around the world. Now a rare
commodity, the price of rice shoots up four-fold. Wheat from Australia (which could
have been delivered to starving Indians) is instead transported to British troops as
well. Even worse, British colonial authorities (again under Churchill’s leadership)
actually turn down offers of food from the U.S.
Churchill hates Indians almost as much as he hates Germans; mainly because India
wants its independence from Britain. Later, at a War Cabinet meeting, Churchill
blames the Indians themselves for the famine, saying that they “breed like rabbits.”

SUMMER, 1943

ALLIES INVADE SICILY FROM NORTH AFRICA / ITALIAN GOVERNMENT COLLAPSES / 60,000 ITALIAN CIVILIANS KILLED
The Allied invasion of the southern Italian island of Sicily is another huge success for
Generals Patton and Montgomery (UK). German and Italian resistance
is overwhelmed. Within four weeks of the initial air and sea assault, Axis troops
evacuate to the Italian mainland.

Italian Leader Benito Mussolini is removed from power by his own Grand Council.
The new government arrests him, makes peace with the Allies, and switched sides.
This leaves Germany with the sole task of halting Patton’s push up the Italian
peninsula. (In September, Mussolini is rescued by German commandos and
reinstalled to rule over Northern Italy).
With Italy coming quickly under Allied control, Hitler worries that the Allies will
now invade Yugoslavia and the Balkan nations, cut off Germany’s oil supply, and
march north upon Germany from the “soft underbelly of Europe”. In August of 1943,
the British Royal Air Force, departing from bases in southern Italy, begins heavy
bombing of the Ploesti oil fields of German allied Romania. The German-occupied
parts of Italy are also heavily bombed by the Allies, resulting in the deaths of 60,000
Italian civilians.

1943-45

SPECIAL GERMAN UNITS PROTECT THE PRICELESS ARTWORKS OF EUROPE

Under Kaiser Wilhelm II during World War I, the highly cultured Germans had gone
to great lengths to protect and preserve artworks located in combat zones. The
German word to describe this principal of saving Europe’s cultural and artistic
treasures during wartime is “Kunstschutz” (art protection).
A talented painter himself, Adolf Hitler has a great appreciation for art and culture.
He sees Churchill and FDR as uncultured barbarians with merciless disregard for
innocent life, architecture, and works of art. As the Germans had done during World
War I, Hitler too orders the protection of artworks throughout the combat theaters of

Europe. The task of protecting the art is handed over to Air Force Marshal
Hermann Goering. As Allied terror bombing ravages Europe, thousands of
paintings and sculptures from Italy, France, Belgium, Russia, Romania, and Poland
are gathered and meticulously inventoried by the Germans.
After the war, the American Art Looting Investigation Unit (ALIU) of the Office of
Strategic Services (OSS) issues 13 reports on the German “looting” of artworks. By
the way, this is the same OSS (forerunner of the CIA) that also accused the Germans
of using dead Jews to make “shrunken heads”, “lamp shades” and “bars of soap” –
allegations which are today universally acknowledged as false.

1943

GENERALS EISENHOWER & MARSHALL POSTPONE THE U.S. ADVANCE / WAR IS PROLONGED TO HELP STALIN

With “the soft underbelly of Europe” now vulnerable, Churchill and British General
Montgomery argue for an immediate Allied advance upon Germany from the south of
Europe. This was Hitler’s greatest concern.
The oil fields of Romania fuel the German military. An Allied advance on the
Balkans through Yugoslavia and Greece would be disastrous for Germany. From
Italy and the Balkans, the Allies can then launch a final push upon Germany itself
from the south and southeast.

Inexplicably, Allied Commander Dwight Eisenhower.(‘Ike’) and Army Chief of
Staff George Marshall (who had promoted Eisenhower over scores of senior
officers) insist upon making preparations for an invasion of heavily fortified Northern
France the following year.
This bizarre “blunder” prolongs the war, buys the Soviets much needed time to
march westward, and eventually enables Stalin to steal Eastern Europe.
There is a reason for this Geo-political “blunder”. FDR and his Globalist gang
envision a post-war world in which the Soviets and the United States join forces
to lay the foundation for a ‘New World Order’ (World Government). However,
after the war, Stalin will break with the Globalists and move towards a form of
Nationalistic Communism instead; an extension of the ideological conflict that had
bitterly divided Stalin and Trotsky during the 1920’s. Stalin still supports world-wide
Communist revolution, of course, but his vision of a New World Order is one in
which Moscow calls the shots, not London or New York.

1943-1945

VLASOV’S ARMY: SOVIET POW’S VOLUNTEER TO FIGHT FOR GERMANY

Stalin’s tyranny was hated by so many Russians that as many as 500,000 Russian
POW’s volunteered to fight for Germany! The anti-Communist soldiers of the

Russian Liberation Army wore German uniforms with a Russian patch. They were
led by General Andrey Vlasov, but under German high command.
The RLA fought valiantly, mainly in key rear guard support roles against Communist
partisans. After the war, the RLA will attempt to surrender to the western allies. Not
wanting to deny ‘Uncle Joe’ of his revenge, Eisenhower will turn down their offers
and forcibly repatriate those who were already in U.S. custody.
Despite pleading with the Americans for political asylum, General Vlasov and his
freedom fighters will then be handed over to the brutal Soviets. Vlasov and 11 of his
senior officers are hanged in Moscow in August, 1946.

MAY, 1944

4000 ITALIAN WOMEN ARE GANG RAPED BY FRENCH CONTROLLED NORTH AFRICANS AT MONTE CASSINO

In May ’44, the Allies finally succeed in taking Monte Cassino.(in Central Italy)
from German control, after bombing the town’s 6th century abbey into ruins. The
Allies have French-Moroccan troops fighting for them. The Moroccans are allowed to
run wild; slitting the throats of prisoners, looting homes, and raping every Italian
woman they can get their hands on. The Moroccans even rape local boys and a
Catholic Priest!
Two Italian sisters, ages 16 and 18, are gang raped by more than 200 Moroccans. One
dies from the abuse, and the other will spend the rest of her life in a mental hospital.

An estimated 3000 women aged 11-86 are raped, some so violently that 100 of them
die. About 800 village men who try to protect them are also killed. The Moroccans go
unpunished by their “Free French” Commanders and will later rape and kill again
when they occupy Germany.

JUNE 6, 1944

‘D-DAY’ – OVERLORD / ALLIED INVASION OF NORMANDY LAUNCHED ON 6-6-6 ESTABLISHES A FOOTHOLD IN EUROPE
At the 6th hour, of the 6th day, of the 6th month of 1944, Allied armies based in
England launch ‘D-Day’ (Devil’s Day?), and successfully cross the English Channel.
The cost of Operation Overlord (the Devil?) is high as nearly 10,000 men are killed
storming the fortified beaches of Normandy. But Overlord establishes an initial
beachhead of 100,000 troops. From this base in northern France, the Allies will be
reinforced for the push towards Germany.
At the same time, the Soviet Red Army, armed to the teeth with state-of-the-art
American weaponry, advances upon Germany from the east. With Italy also under
Allied occupation, Germany has three fronts to defend (West, South, and East) as its
cities, railways, dams, factories and civilian population endure relentless
bombardment and Partisan sabotage.

In order to give Stalin time to conquer Eastern Europe, Generals Eisenhower
and Marshall repeatedly delay the advance of General Patton’s unstoppable 3rd
army, going so far as to cut off shipments of gasoline to Patton’s army!
Patton (August, 1944): “At the present time our chief difficulty is not the Germans,
but gasoline. If they would give me enough gas, I could go all the way to Berlin!”

SUMMER, 1944

THE MURDEROUS ‘LIBERATION’ & RAPE OF FRANCE
Under what was intended to be only temporary, wartime German occupation (1940-
1944), life in Northern France goes by peacefully for French civilians. The conduct of
the German occupiers is impeccable. Many French women fall in love with German
soldiers. But with the Normandy invasion (June 6, 1944), the peace and security of
France is shattered into a million pieces. To support the cross-channel invasion, and
to then push the Germans eastward, the Allies unleash a ferocious aerial
bombardment campaign. Entire towns are mercilessly carpet bombed. Cultural icons
and works of art are destroyed, 65,000 French civilians are killed, 150,000 are
injured, and at least 500,000 left homeless. Even Paris is heavily bombed.
Incredibly, twice as many French civilians are bombed to death during only a
few months, as the total amount of British civilians killed during the entire war!
(10) Of course, these numbers pale in comparison to the 1,000,000 + German
civilians who were killed by Allied bombings..The horror doesn’t end with the
bombardment either. The Allied occupation and subsequent economic collapse bring
new nightmares for the women of France. Under Allied occupation, American troops
rape 1000’s of French women, and turn many 1000’s more hungry women into sex-

for-food prostitutes. To appease the French population, the U.S. Army will eventually
hang 130 of its rapist soldiers, a majority of them Black.
It will take years for these areas of France to recover from the tragedy. Such is the
glorious “liberation” that Churchill, FDR, and the French traitor de Gaulle have
imposed upon France.

JULY, 1944

RED ARMY ROLLS BACK INTO POLAND / GERMANS RETREAT
With their free arsenal supplemented by America’s finest tanks, Tommy-Guns,
planes, trucks, jeeps, and even food and blankets, the Red Army advances on
Germany from the east. Stalin’s plot to take all of Eastern Europe has been helped
greatly by Ike’s and Marshall’s curious obsession with invading Europe from
England, instead of simply advancing from Europe’s “soft underbelly”.
Stalin wants to crush Berlin. By July ’44, the murdering and raping Reds have rolled
into Poland, threatening Germany’s eastern flank. Frightened German civilians begin

fleeing westward by land and also via the Baltic Sea.

JULY, 1944

BRETTON WOODS CONFERENCE ESTABLISHES THE WORLD BANK AND THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
The chaos and crisis of World War II gives the Globalists an opportunity to reshape
the world’s monetary system into a “global economy”. At the Bretton Woods
Conference in New Hampshire, 730 delegates from 44 nations set up new rules for
commercial and financial relations. Representing the US is Harry Dexter
White. White (originally Weiss) is the son of Jewish immigrants from the Russian
Empire. Years after Bretton Woods, Dexter-White is revealed to be a Soviet spy.
The top British delegate is the legendary Fabian Socialist (possible secret
Communist) and homosexual pedophile (13), John Maynard Keynes. Keynes
suggests the creation of a World Currency, to be issued by a Global Central Bank.
But the world is not ready for such a radical step towards The New World Order.
Instead of a global currency, each nation will link the value of its currency to the U.S.
Dollar, which will serve as the international medium of exchange. Both
the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, are conceived
at Bretton Woods.

JULY 20, 1944

OPERATION VALKYRIE & THE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT AGAINST HITLER

In addition to a few ambitious traitors, there are still some naïve fools among the
German military establishment who believe that the western Allies can yet be
reasoned with and peace obtained in the western front. Unbeknownst to them,
Churchill and FDR have already pledged to Stalin that they will not seek a separate
peace with Germany.

Partly out of a sincere though very misguided belief that Germany would be spared if
Hitler was assassinated; and partly out of a desire to save their own skin; a gang of
plotters, led by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, attempts to kill Adolf Hitler. The
great General Erwin Rommel is believed to have given his blessing to the plot
(though some have disputed this).
Carrying a bomb in his briefcase, Stauffenberg attends a conference with Hitler. He
then positions the briefcase under the table near Hitler. After a few minutes,
Stauffenberg receives a planned telephone call and leaves the room. When the bomb
detonates, it demolishes the conference room, killing three officers and the
stenographer. Hitler survives with a perforated eardrum.
The conspiracy is unraveled and the conspirators are soon executed by firing squad.
General Rommel is granted the privilege of taking poison.

1944 – 1945

TYPHUS EPIDEMICS DEVASTATE THE GERMAN INTERNMENT CAMPS

Typhus is spread by head lice, and has historically been linked to wars and crowded
conditions. Decomposing typhus corpses can also spread the disease into local
groundwater. During and after the World War I, as many as 5 million Poles and
Russians had died of the deadly disease.

To stop the spread of typhus, the Germans shave the heads of the prisoners and delouse their
clothing in “gas chambers”. With the situation in Germany deteriorating fast, deadly typhus
epidemics break out in Germany’s internment camps, especially in Poland. The Allied
bombardment of railroads and medicine factories contributes greatly to this medical crisis.
In spite of Germany’s well-documented efforts to stop the typhus epidemic, deaths in the
concentration camps continue to mount throughout ’44 & ’45. After the war, Allied
propaganda will falsely portray the typhus deaths as evidence of a deliberate
extermination program aimed at the Jews.

AUGUST, 1944

THE VICHY GOVERNMENT OF FRANCE IS TOPPLED BY THE ALLIES / VENGEFUL GENERAL de GAULLE RETURNS AND MURDERS 40,000 OF HIS OWN PEOPLE

After the collapse of the Vichy French regime, General Charles de Gaulle returns
from his English exile. The Globalist and Communist French then impose a new
Reign of Terror. Cruel punishment is meted out against those labeled as “Nazi
collaborators”, whose only crime was in making peace with Germany, or to have
fought against the Soviets on the eastern front as members of the German SS units.
The de Gaullist ‘liberals’ will murder as many as 40,000, and imprison 100,000 of
their countrymen. French women who dated German soldiers during the occupation
are humiliated by having their heads shaved bald or stripped naked.
Marshal Petain escapes to Germany. After the war, he will be sentenced to death for
“treason”, but due to his age, 88, and hero status from WW I, de Gaulle has no choice
but to reduce Petain’s sentence to life in prison.

JANUARY 8, 1945

NEW YORK TIMES PUBLISHES A COMMUNIST’S CLAIM OF 6 MILLION JEWS DEAD

Sing it again Four Tops: “It’s the same, old song….

We have firmly established that, on numerous occasions dating back to 1900, the
propaganda claim of “6 million Jews” being in jeopardy of dying appeared in print.
Towards the end of World War II, the first claim of 6 million Jews having actually
died was published in January, 1945, based upon the claim of a
Communist correspondent for the New York Jewish Daily Forward (an openly
Marxist, Yiddish language publication).
As far back as 1933, Lestchinsky (above, right) had been accused by both Latvia and
Germany of spreading false atrocity propaganda. Germany had actually expelled
him for telling atrocity lies.
With neither investigation nor confirmation, Lestchinsky’s claim of 6 million dead
Jews was immortalized with a headline in the Jewish owned New York Times. The
most “prestigious” newspaper in the world thus gave a HUGE boost to a big lie.
Aside from Lestchinsky being a known Communist liar, there is another problem
with the story. You see, none of the major concentration camps had even been
liberated yet! Following are the 1945 liberation dates for some of the most well
known “Nazi death camps”:

Auschwitz (January 27), Buchenwald (April 4), Bergen Belsen (April 11),

Dachau (April 29), Mauthausen (May 5)

All of these camps were regularly visited by the Red Cross, which estimated the final
death toll at 270,000 (mainly from typhus). Though the number was based on
German records, the Red Cross at the time neither questioned the figure nor ever
complained about German cooperation with regard to camp inspection.
So, where did Comrade Lestchinsky get this “6 million” from? As it turns out, the “6
million” number, which evidently has some symbolic significance, has been around
for a long time.

JANUARY 30, 1945

SOVIET SUB SINKS THE WILHELM GUSTLOFF / 10,000 GERMAN REFUGEES KILLED AT SEA!

As the raping and murdering Soviets push eastward, millions of terrified German
refugees flee west by land and sea. The liner MV Wilhelm Gustloff is packed
shoulder-to-shoulder with 10 -12,000 people – 10 times as many as the Titanic!
Soon after leaving port, the doomed ship is sighted by Soviet Submarine commander
Alexander Marinesko. Having stalked his human prey for several hours, the Soviet
killer then fires three torpedoes into the ship’s port side. In the panic that follows,
many passengers are trampled to death as they flee to the decks.
The Wilhelm Gustloff sinks in just 45 minutes. German ships arrive quickly and pluck
about 1,000 survivors from the frigid Baltic Sea.

FEBRUARY, 1945

THE YALTA CONFERENCE / FDR ‘GIVES AWAY THE STORE’ TO JOE STALIN

The most historic of the “Big Three” conferences is held in the Black Sea resort of
Yalta (Russian Crimea). At the Yalta Conference, FDR & Churchill (especially
FDR).make easy concessions to the mass-murdering Communist, “Uncle Joe”.
With Red spies Alger Hiss and Harry Hopkins influencing the dying Roosevelt
(who dies in April), it is decided that after Germany’s defeat:

The Soviets will occupy Eastern Europe until free elections can be held.
The Soviets will eventually join the war against Japan and be supplied with
U.S. arms for the effort.
After Japan is defeated, the Soviets will occupy northern Korea (without
Korea’s approval!), and Manchuria in China (without China’s approval!)
Millions of Russian POWs captured by the Germans, as well as Russian
refugees fleeing Stalin, will be forcefully returned to Stalin.
Germany will be split in half as will the Capital of Berlin.

FEBRUARY 13-15, 1945

THE ‘ASH WEDNESDAY’ HOLOCAUST OF DRESDEN 200,000 – 300,000 CIVILIANS KILLED!

By February of ‘45, the outcome of the war in Europe is already clear. Germany is
finished and will formally surrender in 3 months. The murderous firebombing of the
beautiful city of Dresden is therefore as cruel as it is unnecessary. In an apparent
effort to mock Catholic Germans, the Zio-Globalists chose the day of “Ash
Wednesday” to literally turn Dresden into ashes.
For two straight days, wave upon wave of Allied air sorties drop phosphorus and
incendiary bombs upon a defenseless population. Thousands of fires merge into one
huge firestorm, sucking oxygen to feed itself as countless numbers of German
elderly, women, and children suffocate or burn alive.

The fire is so massive that pilots report that their cockpits are actually illuminated by
the great flame. Because so many refugees fleeing eastward have swelled Dresden’s
population, it is difficult to say how many are killed by the Churchill/FDR
“Holocaust”. Credible estimates vary between 200 -300,000 dead, and possibly as
many 400,000! Survivors are later strafed with machine gun fire from low flying
American & British fighter planes.

MARCH 10, 1945

FDR FIREBOMBS TOKYO / 100,000 CIVILIANS KILLED
Though it will later be overshadowed by the subsequent atomic bombs dropped on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Firebombing of Tokyo is just as deadly in its initial

death toll. The genocidal terror bombing involves the same type of incendiary
explosives dropped on Dresden one month earlier, and yields similar horrific results.
The charred bodies of 100,000 dead civilians litter the streets and 250,000 buildings
and homes are destroyed. Millions more are injured or left homeless.

APRIL 12, 1945

FDR DIES OF A STROKE/ HARRY TRUMAN BECOMES PRESIDENT

The polio-stricken FDR will not live to see the end of the bloody war that he helped
unleash upon the world. FDR intends to take a few weeks rest before his anticipated
appearance at the founding conference of the United Nations in San Francisco.
On the afternoon of April 12, Roosevelt says out loud, “I have a terrific pain in the
back of my head.” He slumps forward in his chair, unconscious, and is carried into his
bedroom. Like Wilson in 1919, FDR suffers a massive stroke and dies soon
afterwards. FDR’s lasting legacy for America is the class warfare induced welfare
state and the brutal foreign warfare state; both of which are bankrupting the United
States and killing innocents abroad.
Naturally, after his death The New York Times declares, “Men will thank God on
their knees a hundred years from now that Franklin D. Roosevelt was in the White
House”.

Vice President Harry Truman becomes President. He is a corrupt, dim-witted
political hack and failed businessman. FDR’s Jewish and Red inner circle will
continue to run the show while the ill-tempered little man from Missouri delivers the
speeches. Nothing will change.

APRIL 15, 1945

EISENHOWER ORDERS PATTON’S ARMY TO HALT / BERLIN & EASTERN EUROPE RESERVED FOR STALIN!

British General Bernard Montgomery argues that there is now nothing to stop the
Allies from sweeping into Berlin, thus taking the German Capital before the
advancing Soviet army can get there. Eisenhower, however, has other ideas. As
FDR’s loyal lapdog had done time and time again, “Ike” would find a way to delay
the Allied advance so as to buy time for Stalin to advance from the east.
On March 28, ’45, Ike sends a message to Stalin, assuring him that the Allied advance
will focus on western Germany. On April 15, Ike issues a halt order forbidding
Allied commanders from crossing the Elbe River. Generals Montgomery
and Patton are very upset over the sudden order to halt the advance, thus condemning
Berlin, and all of Eastern Europe, to Soviet barbarism.

APRIL 16, 1945

SOVIET SUB SINKS THE GOYA / 7,000 MORE GERMAN REFUGEES KILLED AT SEA!

The Goya.is a German transport ship carrying 7,000 wounded soldiers and terrified
refugees westward. The Red Terror will follow these poor souls to sea. Soviet
Captain Vladimir Konovalov spots the Goya and orders it to be blasted by
torpedoes. The Goya sinks very quickly, plunging its passengers into the icy Baltic
Sea. Less than 200 will survive. The final death toll is about the equivalent of 7
Titanics!
For this murderous war crime, Captain Konovalov is awarded the Soviet Union’s
highest military decoration, Hero of the Soviet Union.

APRIL 28, 1945

ITALIAN COMMUNIST PARTISANS KILL MUSSOLINI / HIS BODY IS PUBLICLY HUNG UPSIDE DOWN

With total defeat looming in Europe, Mussolini attempts to escape to neutral
Switzerland. He is captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian
Partisans (Communists). Mussolini’s body is then taken to Milan, where it is hung
upside down for public viewing and also to provide confirmation of his death.
Mussolini’s 1922 takeover of Italy (The March on Rome) saved Italy from
Communism. There were many positive economic and social developments during
his rule. But in the end, “il Duce” and his imperialistic ego put Italy and Germany in
very difficult situations. His reckless adventures in Africa & Greece made Italy a
huge burden for Germany to carry and defend. Moreover, French & Arab disdain for
Mussolini’s actions ruined Hitler’s chances to bring France and the Arabs into an
anti-British alliance.

APRIL 30, 1945

HITLER ISSUES HIS FINAL TESTAMENT / COMMITS SUICIDE IN HIS BERLIN BUNKER

With the situation in Berlin hopeless, Hitler marries his longtime mistress, Eva
Braun. The two then commit suicide; Eva by poison, Hitler by gunshot. Hitler’s dog
Blondie is also poisoned. The staff is under orders to burn the bodies and to escape
Berlin before the Soviets can capture them.

One day before committing suicide, Hitler had dictated his final Political Testament,
a suicide note, in essence, in which he denied any responsibility for starting the war.
Some critical excerpts that you’ll not find in your High School history book:
“More than thirty years have now passed since I in 1914 made my modest
contribution as a volunteer in the First World War that was forced upon the Reich. In
these three decades I have been actuated solely by love and loyalty to my people in
all my thoughts, acts, and life. They gave me the strength to make the most difficult
decisions which have ever confronted mortal man. I have spent my time, my working
strength, and my health in these three decades.
“It is untrue that I or anyone else in Germany wanted war in 1939. It was wanted
and provoked solely by international statesmen either of Jewish origin or working
for Jewish interests.
I have made too many offers for the control and limitation of armaments, which
posterity will not for all time be able to disregard for the responsibility for the
outbreak of this war to be laid on me. Nor have I ever wished that after the
appalling First World War a second against England, or even against America,
should break out. Centuries will pass away, but out of the ruins of our towns and
monuments the hatred of those whom we have to thank for all this will always grow
anew: international Jewry and its henchmen.
Three days before the outbreak of the German-Polish war I again proposed to the
British ambassador in Berlin a solution to the German-Polish problem—similar to
that in the case of the Saar district, under international control
This offer also cannot be denied. It was only rejected because the leading circles in
English politics wanted the war, partly on account of the business hoped for and
partly under influence of propaganda organized by International Jewry.
After six years of war, which in spite of all setbacks will go down one day in history
as the most glorious and valiant demonstration of a nation’s life purpose, I cannot
forsake the city which is the capital of this Reich. As the forces are too small to make
any further stand against the enemy attack at this place, and our resistance is
gradually being weakened by men who are as deluded as they are lacking in
initiative, I should like, by remaining in this town, to share my fate with those, the
millions of others, who have also taken upon themselves to do so.
Moreover, I do not wish to fall into the hands of an enemy who requires a new
spectacle organized by the Jews for the amusement of their hysterical masses. I have

decided therefore to remain in Berlin and there of my own free will to choose death at
the moment when I believe the position of the Fuehrer and Chancellor itself can no
longer be held.
I die with a happy heart, aware of the immeasurable deeds and achievements of our
soldiers at the front, our women at home, the achievements of our farmers and
workers and the work, unique in history, of our youth who bear my name”.

MAY 3, 1945

AMERICA’S PERSECUTION OF EZRA POUND

Just days after killing Mussolini, the American-controlled Partisans hunt down and
capture the famous American poet, Ezra Pound, and hand him over to the OSS (CIA)
for interrogation. Pound is an admirer of National Socialism, or “Fascism” as it is
called in Italy. While living in Italy during the war, Pound had condemned the unjust
war and the Jewish financiers behind it. After his capture, he praises Adolf Hitler a

“Saint”. The great literary genius and gentle peace lover is then sentenced to an
insane asylum for 12 years!

MAY 8, 1945

V–E DAY / VICTORY IN EUROPE PROCLAIMED AS GERMANY SURRENDERS WITHOUT CONDITIONS

Upon hearing news that Germany has surrendered unconditionally, jubilant crowds
throughout Britain and the U.S. celebrate Victory in Europe Day. Admiral Karl
Donitz, named in Hitler’s final testament as the new President of Germany, signs the
surrender agreement. He soberly remarks, “With this signature, the German people
and armed forces are for better or for worse, delivered into the victor’s
hands.”

But there is to be no mercy for the German people who had dared to defy the New
World Order, and, for a while, had actually defeated the Globalists! Germany’s real

nightmares are about to unfold as a vengeful Globalist-Communist Alliance-of-
Evil imposes a collective punishment upon Germany that will dwarf Versailles.

Between 10 million and 15 million Germans died during, and after World War II.

MAY 8, 1945

HOURS AFTER GERMAN SURRENDERS, SOVIETS PUBLISH REPORT OF ‘GAS CHAMBERS’ USED TO KILL JEWS / NEW YORK TIMES CARRIES THE CLAIM

The May 8 Zionist-Globalist New York Times, carries a story on p. 12 of the VE-Day
edition, an article by Zionist C.L. Sulzberger headlined: ‘Oswiecim (Auschwitz)
Killings Placed at 4 Million; Soviet Commission Reports’.
The story tells of mass killing and “gassings” at the Auschwitz prison camp in
Poland. The timing of the report’s release –just hours after Germany’s surrender–
makes it impossible for the falsely accused Germans to refute Stalin’s claim. It is
a little known fact of history that the Auschwitz “gas chamber” story originated with
a Soviet report (authorized by the known liars and murderers Joe Stalin & Lazar
Kaganovich) which is then spread by the “prestigious” NY Times.
In 1988, and again in 1991, forensic tests on the remnants of the Auschwitz “gas
chamber” will come back negative for any traces of “gas” or “poison”.
Noted American and European scholars who have since dared to explore the many
inconsistencies and contradictions of “The Holocaust” story have been subjected to

harassment, career destruction and (in Europe & Canada) imprisonment. The
Holocaust is a story that the Globalists & Zionists will NEVER allow to be debated..
Adolf Hitler nearly smashed the New World Order. It is for this reason that he
must forever be portrayed in the public mind as the most evil and wretched monster who ever lived.

Hermann Goering, Head of the Luftwaffe (German Air force):
Committed suicide in his cell (cyanide) just before the Allies could hang him (1946)
Josef Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda & Enlightenment:
Committed suicide by gunshot in Berlin; body later burned
Heinrich Himmler, Head of the Waffen SS:
Allegedly committed suicide by biting a hidden cyanide pill while in Allied captivity;
but according to noted British historian David Irving, Himmler was actually beaten to
death by British interrogators
Martin Bormann: Staff Chief
Believed to have been killed by Russian rocket fire while fleeing Berlin

Rudolf Hess: Deputy Fuhrer, flew peace mission to Scotland
Life in prison. Murdered by British agents in 1987 before release
Von Ribbentrop: Foreign Minister
Hanged at Nuremberg, 1946

JUNE 26, 1945

THE FOUNDING CHARTER FOR THE UNITED NATIONS IS SIGNED IN SAN FRANCISCO

At the founding San Francisco Conference that established the United Nations, the
U.S. official serving as Secretary General is the Communist agent Alger Hiss. Hiss
will later be exposed as a Soviet spy in 1948. The U.N. replaces the League of
Nations as the foundation of The New World Order. All 51 nations signing the
original charter agree to be bound by its articles.

The all-out propaganda campaign surrounding the UN’s establishment is
pervasive and intense. It is argued that “isolationist” America’s refusal to join the
League of Nations after World War I was the tragic mistake that led to World War II.
That mistake “must not be repeated”.
Within 30 days, the US Senate will approve the UN Treaty by a vote of 89-2! Even
the conservative legend, Senator Robert Taft (son of President William.Howard.Taft)
votes in favor of U.S. entry. The embryonic World Government will be
headquartered in New York, on 18 acres of prime real estate donated by the
Rockefeller Family. Globalism has won World War II!

AUGUST 6 & 10, 1945

HORROR IN JAPAN! / ATOMIC BOMBS DROPPED ON HIROSHIMA & NAGASAKI

Like FDR before him, Harry Truman also has no regard for human life. By August
‘45, Japan is trying hard, via “neutral” Soviet channels, to negotiate surrender, just
not unconditionally as Truman demands. Little do the Japanese know that the Soviets
are already planning to join the war in East Asia! Atomic bombs are then dropped on
the women, elderly, and children of Hiroshima (Aug 6) and Nagasaki (Aug 10).
Within the first few months of the bombings, the effects kill 100-150,000 people in
Hiroshima and 60–80,000 in Nagasaki. Half of the deaths occur on the first day,
mostly from burns. Many more die of cancer later on.

AUGUST 9, 1945

SOVIET UNION DECLARES WAR UPON BEATEN JAPAN!
Just 3 days after the bombing of Hiroshima, and only hours before the 2nd bombing at
Nagasaki, the man whom Truman and the U.S. press affectionately referred to as
‘Uncle Joe” breaks the Soviet-Japanese Non Aggression Pact of 1941 and declares
war upon an already beaten Japan. Thanks Joe; we couldn’t have won it without you!
Stalin’s entry into the Asian theater, agreed to at the Yalta Conference, will enable
him to arm and materially assist Mao Tse Tung’s Communist takeover of China in

  1. Soviet occupation of North Korea will also lead to the Korean divide which results in the North vs. South Korean War; and 50,000 more dead Americans.

AUGUST 15, 1945

V- J DAY/ JAPAN SURRENDERS

Facing what Truman calls “a Rain of Ruin”, Japan, like Germany before her, has to
make a choice between unrestrained civilian genocide at American and now Soviet
hands, or unconditional surrender and occupation. Japan surrenders on August 15,
’45. (Victory in Japan Day) It should be noted that General Macarthur felt that the
atomic bombing was unnecessary, Macarthur later states, “My staff was unanimous
in believing that Japan was on the point of collapse and surrender.”
For the Globalists, the atomic bombings will later serve a strategic purpose. The
threat of “nuclear war” will, in the coming years, do much to frighten, and then
consolidate, the nations of the world into political, economic, and military alliances.
The Global fear of “the Bomb” will be very useful for The New World Order.

1939 – 1941 WORLD WAR II (From Poland to the Eve of Pearl Harbor)

AUGUST 25, 1939

BRITAIN & POLAND AGREE TO A MILITARY ALLIANCE
The Polish-British Common Defense Pact contains promises of British military
assistance in the event that Poland is attacked by another European country. This
builds upon a previous agreement (March 1939) between the two countries, and also
with France, by specifically committing to military action in the event of an attack.
With this agreement, Zionist-Globalist forces in the UK have trapped the
reluctant Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, as well as France. All that is left to do

now is for Polish-Jewish border thugs, under the protection of Marshal Edward Rydz-
Smigly, to deliberately provoke Germany into action and get the war started. On the

nights of August 25 to August 31 inclusive, there occur many violent attacks on
German civilians as well as German officials and property.

QUOTE TO REMEMBER:

“Chamberlain (speaking off the record to Ambassador Kennedy while golfing)
stated that the America and the world Jews had forced England into the war”.

AUGUST 28, 1939

HITLER ISSUES AN OPEN PEACE LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT OF FRANCE


Now emboldened by Britain, France and, from ‘behind the scenes’, Roosevelt, Poland’s
relentless and murderous abuse of its captive German population reaches the breaking
point. Hitler is prepared for war with Poland but is still attempting to preserve peace,
especially with France and Britain. In an open letter to French President Daladier, Hitler
makes yet another impassioned plea for peace.

Some pertinent excerpts:

“My dear Minister President:
I understand the misgiving to which you give expression. I, too, have never
overlooked the grave responsibilities which are imposed upon those who are in
charge of the fate of nations. As an old front line fighter, I, like you, know the horrors
of war. Guided by this attitude and experience, I have tried to remove all matters that
might cause conflict between our two peoples.

As you could judge for yourself during your last visit here, the German people, in the
knowledge of its own behavior held and holds no ill feelings, much less hatred, for its
one-time brave opponent. On the contrary, the pacification of our western frontier led
to an increasing sympathy.

I am deeply convinced that if, especially, England at that time had, instead of starting
a wild campaign against Germany in the press and instead of launching rumors of a
German mobilization, somehow talked the Poles into being reasonable, Europe today
and for twenty-five years could enjoy a condition of deepest peace. As things were, Polish public opinion was excited by a lie about German aggression.The Polish government declined the proposals. Polish public opinion, convinced that England and France would now fight for Poland, began to make demands one might possibly stigmatize as laughable insanity were they not so tremendously dangerous.

At that point an unbearable terror, a physical and economic persecution of the
Germans although they numbered more than a million and a half began in the
regions ceded by the Reich.

May I now take the liberty of putting a question to you, Herr Daladier: How would
you act as a Frenchman if, through some unhappy issue of a brave struggle, one of
your provinces severed by a corridor occupied by a foreign power? And if a big city –
let us say Marseilles – were hindered from belonging to France and if Frenchmen
living in this area were persecuted, beaten and maltreated, yes, murdered, in a
bestial manner?

I see no way of persuading Poland, which feels herself as unassailable, now that she
enjoys the protection of her guarantees, to accept a peaceful solution. If our two
countries on that account should be destined to meet again on the field of battle,
there would nevertheless be a difference in the motives. I, Herr Daladier, shall be
leading my people in a fight to rectify a wrong, whereas the others would be
fighting to preserve that wrong.”

QUOTE TO REMEMBER

“German men and women were hunted like wild beasts through the streets of
Bromberg. When they were caught, they were mutilated and torn to pieces by the
Polish mob. . . . Every day the butchery increased. . . . Thousands of Germans fled
from their homes in Poland with nothing more than the clothes that they wore..
On the nights of August 25 to August 31 inclusive, there occurred, besides
innumerable attacks on civilians of German blood, 44 perfectly authenticated acts
of armed violence against German official persons and property.”

William Joyce, Irish defector to Germany

AUGUST 31, 1939

‘THE GLEIWITZ’ (& other) BORDER ATTACKS / JEWISH-POLISH GUERILLAS ATTACK GERMAN RADIO STATION

Overestimating their strength, underestimating German strength, and believing that
France and the UK would now back him, Marshal Smigly allows Polish-Jewish
partisan terrorists to cross the border and attack a German radio station in Germany.
It is actually the latest in a string of deliberate border instigations against
Germany.
The “Poles” then broadcast a message (in Polish) urging others to take up arms and
start killing Germans. German police quickly arrive and retake the station, killing one
of the Red terrorists. Jewish Red terrorists, their Polish government protectors,
and their Globalist-Zionist masters have picked a fight with Germany!
Modern fake historians claim that the Gleiwitz incident was staged by Germans
dressed as Polish terrorists. But as is the case with the Reichstag Fire conspiracy

theory, they offer no evidence to support this oft-repeated lie, (beyond a forced
“confession” obtained after the war) to support this theory – a theory that ignores the
outrageous and repeated pattern of provocations directed at Hitler’s Germany ever
since 1933, the numerous border incidents, the murders of Germans and also Hitler’s
sincere attempts to negotiate a resolution to the Corridor and Danzig controversies.

QUOTE TO REMEMBER
“I lived in Germany during the 1980’s when many people who lived during the war
were still alive. I sought out anyone who lived near Poland in 1939 and was lucky
enough to meet several people. One was a customs official who said it was so bad on
the border they were armed and also had grenades in their office ready for attacks.
Another told me his farm animals were often stolen by Polish (Jewish?) terrorists.
Another told of his niece being raped by a Pole (Jew?) who crossed the border. He
told me in 1940 they caught the man and showed me a copy of the death order signed
by Heydrich, in which he ordered the man be put to death.
This is just one of many stories told to me by German civilians who witnessed these
border incursions just like had happened in 1919-1928. One thing many people fail to
see is that Poland openly attacked Germany right after World War I, which led to
many border battles. Once Germany started pressing Poland to work out a solution
to the corridor, the attacks started again. .And one thing that is clear to me is that
Germany did not make up for these attacks.”

George H. Ohio, USA

Hitler has had about all he could take from Poland.

QUOTE TO REMEMBER

“This (Declaration of War) is the fault of the anti-appeasers and the fucking Jews.”

British Duke Arthur Wellesley (5th Duke of Wellington) was the great grandson of the famous Duke of Wellington who defeated Napoleon.

SEPTEMBER 7-16, 1939

THE SAAR OFFENSIVE / FRANCE INVADES GERMANY
The Saar Offensive is a French ground invasion into Saarland, Germany. The large
scale assault is to be carried out by 40 divisions and 40 tank battalions. According to
the Franco-Polish military convention, the French Army was to gain control over
the area between the French border and the Siegfried Line of German defense. Much
to the dismay of the fools in Poland, the full 40-division all-out assault never materializes. The empty promises of empire were just an Allied trick just to get stupid Marshal Smigly to start the fight with Germany.
But a limited invasion and occupation of Germany’s Saar region does indeed occur.
On October 16 & 17, the German army, now reinforced with troops returning from
the Polish campaign, conducts a counter-offensive which retakes the lost territory
from the invading French. In liberating what the French had invaded, the Germans
lose 196 soldiers, plus 114 missing and 356 wounded. Hitler continues to plea for peace.
So you see, dear reader, the Anglo-French Allies not only instigated the war, and
not only were the first to declare war, they also drew first blood upon Germany.

SEPTEMBER 17, 1939

SOVIET UNION INVADES POLAND FROM THE EAST / ALLIES SAY NOTHING

With the Polish army being routed by the advancing Germans in the west, Stalin
cleverly decides to break the Soviet-Polish Non Aggression Pact of 1932. Poland is
stabbed in the back as Soviet forces pour in from the east. The advancing Reds carry
out massacres, the most infamous being the Katyn Forest Massacre in which 10,000
Polish Army officers are shot in the head.
Other than the pre-Versailles German areas which Germany reclaims, the Soviets will
eventually take all of Poland. In a shocking double-standard, the anti-German,
FDR, France & the UK remain oddly silent about this brutal Soviet aggression.
Poland appeals to Britain and France for help, citing the Poland-British
Defense Pact just signed a few weeks ago. The Polish ambassador in London
contacts the British Foreign Office pointing out that clause 1(b) of the agreement,
which concerned an “aggression by a European power” on Poland, should apply to
the Soviet invasion. The UK Foreign Secretary responds with hostility, stating that it
was Britain’s decision whether to declare war on the Soviet Union.
The truth is, the Allies don’t give a rat’s ass about Poland. They only used its stupid
ultra-nationalist leader (who by now has shamelessly abandoned his troops and fled
to Romania), to instigate Hitler so that they could have their war. The horror that
Poland will suffer under Soviet occupation is now Poland’s problem, not the Allies’.

SEPTEMBER 17, 1939

GERMANY DEFEATS POLAND / DANZIG AND ALL OF PRUSSIA REUNITED WITH THE REST OF GERMANY

Within a few weeks, the German-Polish War is already over. Hitler receives a hero’s
welcome upon his arrival in liberated Danzig. Hitler addresses the Danzig crowd:
“No power on earth would have borne this condition as long as Germany. I do not
know what England would have said about a similar peace solution (Versailles) at its
expense or how America or France would have accepted it.
I attempted to find a tolerable solution – even for this problem. I submitted this
attempt to the Polish rulers in the form of verbal proposals. .You know these
proposals. They were more than moderate. I do not know what mental condition the
Polish Government was in when it refused these proposals. …….As an answer,
Poland gave the order for the first mobilization. Thereupon wild terror was initiated,
and my request to the Polish Foreign Minister to visit me in Berlin once more to
discuss these questions was refused. Instead of going to Berlin, he went to
London.”
Hitler rightfully mocks Smigly as a coward:
“The Polish Marshal, who miserably deserted his armies, said that he would hack the
German Army to pieces.”

OCTOBER, 1939 – MAY, 1940

HITLER PLEADS FOR PEACE WITH BRITAIN & FRANCE
The German-Polish War has ended quickly. The Allies never had any intention of
helping Poland. The French actually invade Germany on September 7th,
advancing 8 km before stopping. The quiet period between the end of the Polish
war until May 1940, is dubbed by a U.S. Senator as “The Phony War.”
During this time, Hitler pleads for the Allies to withdraw their war declarations.
Towards France he declares:.“I have always expressed to France my desire to bury
forever our ancient enmity and bring together these two nations, both of which
have such glorious pasts.” To the British, Hitler says: “I have devoted no less effort to the achievement of Anglo-German friendship. At no time and in no place have I ever acted contrary to British interests….Why should this war in the West be fought?”
Hitler’s pleas for peace are ignored as the allies begin to mobilize more than
2,000,000 troops in Northern France. Plans are openly discussed to advance
eastward upon Germany, via “neutral” Belgium and Holland, as well as establishing
operations in “neutral” Norway and Denmark, with or without their consent.

NOVEMBER 4, 1939

FDR REPEALS THE NEUTRALITY ACTS

The Neutrality Acts prohibited the United States from selling arms to warring
nations. The purpose of these acts was to prevent the U.S. from again becoming
involved in Europe’s wars.
Throughout the 1930’s, FDR and his Zionist advisor Bernard Baruch (who had also
been an advisor to Woodrow Wilson), anticipating a new war against Germany, had
unsuccessfully tried to amend the previous Neutrality Acts. Soon after Germany
and Poland began fighting, FDR again urges Congress to repeal the Neutrality Acts.
In November of ’39, a new Neutrality Act is passed. The sale of arms to the UK is
now legal. The scheming FDR has taken a big step towards involving America in a
war that his Zio-Globo handlers have long been agitating for.

APRIL 9, 1940

GERMANY IS FORCED INTO PRE-EMPTIVE, LIMITED OCCUPATIONS OF NORWAY & DENMARK

The Allied plan of attack is to disrupt Germany’s iron ore imports from Sweden by
illegally mining Norwegian waters, and then occupying the important Norwegian port
of Narvik. Plans are also made for imposing a base of operations in Denmark,
Germany’s neutral neighbor to its north.
A Norwegian politician named Vidkun Quisling confirms the existence of these Allied plots.

(Operation Wilfred and Plan R 4). Sympathetic to Germany, and not wanting his country to become a battlefield, Quisling informs Hitler of the Anglo-French plot to wage war from the two Scandinavian countries.

Germany moves quickly to secure the Norwegian port of Narvik just before the
British can place their mines, and also to occupy Denmark. German diplomats assure
the leaders of both Scandinavian nations that Germany seeks neither conquest nor
interference in internal affairs. Life under limited German occupation goes on
quietly for the Scandinavians during the war. Quisling’s name is now a dictionary
word in the English language, synonymous with “traitor” – a totally unfair characterization.

MAY 10, 1940

GREAT BRITAIN INVADES NEUTRAL ICELAND

The British invasion of tiny, neutral Iceland is code named “Operation Fork.” It
begins on May 10, 1940 (the same day that Churchill comes to power) with British
troops disembarking in the Capital City of Reykjavik.

The British quickly move inland, disabling communications networks and securing landing locations.

The government of Iceland protests the violation of their neutrality, but to no avail.
This force is then subsequently augmented, to a final strength of 25,000.

The recently thwarted British occupations of neutral Denmark and Norway, and the successful
occupation of neutral Iceland, show that Rothschild Britain is the true aggressor of the coming war in Western Europe. Although FDR, up until December 1941, promises that America will remain non-belligerent, 30,000 US troops will relieve the British and occupy Iceland in spring of 1941.

MAY 10, 1940

WINSTON CHURCHILL BECOMES UK’s PRIME MINISTER
With the preparations for war in place, the reluctant warrior Neville Chamberlain is
finally pushed aside as the lunatic, drunken, cigar chomping Winston Churchill takes
his place. Churchill’s record of treason already includes the World War I sinking of
the Lusitania (when he was Lord of the Admiralty).
Churchill, and his wealthy London (and New York) Zionist backers, have been
advocating for war with Germany for the past 6 years. His warmongering had made
him an outcast in British politics. But now, with the Zionist press of Britain
misrepresenting the facts surrounding the German-Polish War, Churchill is portrayed
as some sort of wise prophet.
Hitler knows very well who Churchill is, and who he works for. He had even referred
to Churchill in past speeches as part of Britain’s “government of tomorrow”. With
Chamberlain gone and Churchill now in power, Hitler now knows for certain that
“the Phony War” is about to become very real.

QUOTE TO REMEMBER:

“I emphasized that the defeat of Germany and Japan and their elimination from
world trade would give Britain a tremendous opportunity to swell her foreign
commerce in both volume and profit.”

– Bernard M. Baruch

MAY 10, 1940

GERMANY LAUNCHES PRE-EMPTIVE INVASION OF ‘LOW COUNTRIES’

Hitler’s pleas for peace have been repeatedly ignored as 400,000 British and at least
2,000,000 French troops have massed in northern France. The massive invasion
of Germany’s industrial Ruhr region is to come through the ostensibly “neutral”
League of Nations member states of Belgium and The Netherlands (Holland), whose
governments are under intense Allied pressure to allow safe passage for the planned
Allied attack on the bordering Ruhr region of Germany.
Again, Hitler’s hand is forced. On the same day that Churchill comes to power, and
that the UK invades Iceland, as an act of national self-defense, Germany takes the
fight to the Allies before they can bring it to German soil and reinstitute a 2nd
Versailles Treaty. In a stunning advance westward, the German Blitzkrieg quickly
overtakes the smaller nations (known as the Low Countries because of their
geography) and pushes the Allied armies into a full retreat towards the beaches of
northern France.
The Globo-Zionist press, as well as today’s history books, portrays the Blitz as “the
Nazi conquest of Holland, Belgium, and France.” But the menacing presence of
the massive Allied force on Germany’s industrial frontier is conveniently
ignored, as is the undeniable and extensive collaboration between the “neutral”
Low Countries and the Allies.

MAY 10, 1940

ALLIES BOMB GERMAN TOWN OF FRIEBURG / 20 CHILDREN KILLED IN A PLAYGROUND

The medieval and non-strategic German town of Freiburg is located just 20 miles
from the French border. In the opening hours of the war in the west, new Prime
Minister Churchill and his French allies waste no time in murdering civilians. About
60 bombs are dropped on or near Freiburg; killing 50 civilians including 20 children
who were playing outside. This was the first bombing of civilians in World War II.
In order to whitewash this horrific deed from the pages of history; and to maintain the
historical myth that it was Germany that initiated the bombings of civilians; court
historians have long promoted the ridiculous lie that the Germans accidentally
bombed their own town and then blamed the event on the Allies in order to cover up
the mistake. Subsequent terror bombings of German civilians will dispel any doubt
that Churchill was indeed capable of deliberately exterminating civilians.

MAY, 1940

HITLER TRIES FOR PEACE THROUGH A SWEDISH CHANNEL
After having just defeated the French and British invaders, Hitler, via a Swedish third
party, proposes generous peace terms to Britain. The Germans contact the British
ambassador in Sweden, Victor Mallet, through Sweden ́s Supreme Court Judge
Ekeberg, who is known to Hitler ́s legal advisor, Ludwig Weissauer. Hitler ́s peace proposal demands nothing of Great Britain and implies that the states currently occupied by Germany would be de-occupied; as Germany ́s occupation was only due to the present war situation. But Winston Churchill is not interested in peace. The offer goes nowhere.

MAY 25-28, 1940

“THE WAR CABINET CRISIS” / CHURCHILL AND LORD HALIFAX DIVIDED OVER ITALIAN PEACE MEDIATION

Giuseppe Bastianini, the Italian ambassador in London, requests a meeting with
British Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax to discuss Italy’s neutrality. Halifax meets
Bastianini later that afternoon. The discussion soon moves to that of Italian mediation
between the Allies and Germany.
Bastianini reveals that the goal of Italian leader Benito Mussolini (Hitler’s close ally)
is to negotiate a settlement “that would not merely be an armistice, but would
protect European peace for the century.” Halifax responds very favorably to
the idea and takes it to the British War Cabinet.
The following morning Halifax reports to the War Cabinet, summarizing his meeting
with Bastianini and urging his colleagues to consider Italian mediation. Again,
Churchill would have none of it!
For several days, Halifax continues to press for the Mussolini mediation. In an
apparent attempt to placate Halifax, Churchill states that he doubts whether anything
would come of an approach to Italy, but that the matter was one which the War

Cabinet should consider. But Churchill is lying to Halifax. Never once did
Churchill even consider Mussolini’s offer to mediate peace between Britain and

Germany. The matter eventually dies after Churchill outmaneuvers the peace-
seeking Halifax. The conflict is known as ‘The War Cabinet Crisis’.

MAY 27 – JUNE 4, 1940

AS A SIGN OF FRIENDSHIP, HITLER ALLOWS THE ALLIED ARMIES TO ESCAPE AT DUNKIRK

After Germany’s stunning advance, the Allies are trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk,
France. The entire force can be easily captured, but Hitler issues a halt order.
As a show of good faith towards his western tormentors, Hitler believes that the
British will be more likely to make peace if they can escape with their dignity intact.
A massive boat lift involving British fishermen ferries the troops across the English
Channel back to England. The Globalist Press maliciously spins Hitler’s gracious act
as a “miraculous escape right under Hitler’s nose.”
The cigar-chomping, Zionist-owned, alcoholic Winston Churchill vows to keep
fighting as he frightens the British people with tales of imminent German invasion.

QUOTE TO REMEMBER:

“He (Hitler) then astonished us by speaking with admiration of the British Empire,
of the necessity for its existence, and of the civilization that Britain had brought
into the world. ….He compared the British Empire with the Catholic Church
saying they were both essential elements of stability in the world. He said that all he
wanted from Britain was that she should acknowledge Germany’s position on the
Continent. The return of Germany’s colonies would be desirable but not essential,
and he would even offer to support Britain with troops if she should be involved in
difficulties anywhere.”

German General von Blumentritt

JUNE, 1940

SOVIET UNION INVADES 4 COUNTRIES AT THE SAME TIME! / LATVIA, LITHUANIA, ESTONIA, & EASTERN ROMANIA

With the eyes of the world focused on events in Western Europe, Stalin continues
to expand his Evil Empire. The Reds annex the tiny defenseless Baltic states of
Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Stalin also annexes parts of eastern Romania.
The Soviet Union has now invaded 6 countries in just 9 months! Yet, the western
Globalists only remain obsessed with attacking Germany, whose leader, just like the
Kaiser had two decades earlier, continues to plead for peace.

JUNE, 1940

AFTER GERMANY’S DEFEAT OF THE ALLIES, MUSSOLINI’s ITALY JOINS THE WAR

Upon seeing Germany’s stunning victory in 1940, Benito Mussolini, the
opportunistic, ego-driven Leader of Italy, ends Italy’s neutrality and allies himself
with Germany. He declares war upon France (which was already beaten and
occupied) and also upon the UK, (which is already being chased out of Europe at
Dunkirk).
Unlike Hitler’s defensive war, Mussolini dreams of conquest, hoping to restore a new
Roman Empire in North Africa. But his reckless adventures will prove to be very costly to Hitler. In August of ’40, Italy occupies British Somaliland in East Africa. In
September, Italy invades Egypt, which has been occupied by the British since a 1936
Treaty to protect the Suez Canal.
In picking a fight with Britain, Mussolini bites off far more than the unimpressive
Italian military can chew. The superior British land and naval forces dominate their
Italian adversaries, giving Churchill a potential continental opening to invade a now
non-neutral Italy from North Africa.

JUNE 22, 1940

NEW GOVERNMENT OF FRANCE MAKES PEACE WITH HITLER
As the fleeing French government collapses, the Germans enter undefended Paris on
June 14 ‘ 40. The new government is headed by the World War I hero Marshal
Philippe Petain, who agrees to make peace with Germany.
Unlike the brutality of the Versailles Treaty, the terms of this Armistice are very
light, requiring only that Germany continues to occupy northern France as a
defensive measure against a British invasion of the continent. The new French
government has its administrative offices in the southern city of Vichy. Other than
the strategic occupation in the north, France remains a sovereign nation. Life in
occupied France goes on quietly. German soldiers establish an excellent reputation
for good behavior, and charm with the French ladies.
Meanwhile in the UK, Churchill and French General Charles De Gaulle fume over
Marshal Petain’s refusal to continue fighting. Hitler wants Petain to ally his country with Germany, but Mussolini’s war declaration upon France leaves such a bad taste
in the mouths of Frenchmen that they cannot possibly join a German-Italian alliance.

JUNE 24, 1940

WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS CLAIMS THAT 6 MILLION JEWS ARE DOOMED IF GERMANY WINS THE WAR

Sing it Four Tops! – “It’s the same, old song, with a different …..

Not a single Jew has even been interned and Hitler is still pleading for peace; yet
the “Holocaust” and the “6 million” have already been established!

JULY, 1940

CHURCHILL LAUNCHES AERIAL BOMBARDMENT CAMPAIGN AGAINST GERMAN CIVILIANS

With British ground troops having been chased off of the European mainland,
Churchill and his London/New York Banking Bosses can only continue the fight over
air (and sea). The British Royal Air Force is ordered to bomb civilian areas.
Churchill hopes to provoke a similar response from Hitler so that he and FDR can
point to “German bombing of civilians.”
In a July memo to the Minister of UK Air Craft production, Churchill writes:
“When I look around to see how we can win the war I see that there is only one sure
path. We have no Continental army which can defeat the German military power..
…there is one thing that will bring him (Hitler) down, and that is an absolutely
devastating, exterminating attack by very heavy bombers from this country upon
the Nazi homeland. We must be able to overwhelm them by this means, without
which I do not see a way through.”

The notorious drunk will bomb German civilian areas seven times. But Hitler refuses to do the same. German bombers are under strict orders to limit their attacks to military/industrial targets only…Finally, in September; Hitler is forced to declare that any more British bombings of civilian areas will be met with a similar response.
When the German Air Force drops its first bombs on British civilian areas, the world
press declares “Germany Bombs Civilians.”
As he had done with the orchestrated sinking of the Lusitania in 1915, Winston
Churchill has again deliberately brought on the deaths of innocent men, women, and
children in order to achieve political goals.

JULY 20, 1940

HITLER DROPS ‘PEACE LEAFLETS’ OVER LONDON!
With Germany in total control of the continent and the war situation, Hitler responds
to Churchill’s bombs by dropping mass quantities of leaflets over London. The 4-
page broadsheet contains an English language summary of Hitler’s recent speech
before the Reichstag. The speech is entitled, “A Last Appeal to Reason”, in which
he closes with a final appeal for peace:
“In this hour I feel it to be my duty before my own conscience to appeal once more
to reason and common sense in Great Britain as much as elsewhere. I consider
myself in a position to make this appeal, since I am not the vanquished, begging
favors, but the victor speaking in the name of reason. I can see no reason why this
war must go on. I am grieved to think of the sacrifices it will claim.
Possibly Mr. Churchill again will brush aside this statement of mine by saying that
it is merely born of fear and of doubt in our final victory. In that case I shall have
relieved my conscience in regard to the things to come.”
The British respond to Hitler’s sincere plea with mockery, threats, and more bombs.

JULY 20, 1940

HITLER DROPS ‘PEACE LEAFLETS’ OVER LONDON!
With Germany in total control of the continent and the war situation, Hitler responds
to Churchill’s bombs by dropping mass quantities of leaflets over London. The 4-
page broadsheet contains an English language summary of Hitler’s recent speech
before the Reichstag. The speech is entitled, “A Last Appeal to Reason”, in which
he closes with a final appeal for peace:
“In this hour I feel it to be my duty before my own conscience to appeal once more
to reason and common sense in Great Britain as much as elsewhere. I consider
myself in a position to make this appeal, since I am not the vanquished, begging
favors, but the victor speaking in the name of reason. I can see no reason why this
war must go on. I am grieved to think of the sacrifices it will claim.
Possibly Mr. Churchill again will brush aside this statement of mine by saying that
it is merely born of fear and of doubt in our final victory. In that case I shall have
relieved my conscience in regard to the things to come.”
The British respond to Hitler’s sincere plea with mockery, threats, and more bombs.

JULY 20, 1940

HITLER DROPS ‘PEACE LEAFLETS’ OVER LONDON!
With Germany in total control of the continent and the war situation, Hitler responds
to Churchill’s bombs by dropping mass quantities of leaflets over London. The 4-
page broadsheet contains an English language summary of Hitler’s recent speech
before the Reichstag. The speech is entitled, “A Last Appeal to Reason”, in which
he closes with a final appeal for peace:
“In this hour I feel it to be my duty before my own conscience to appeal once more
to reason and common sense in Great Britain as much as elsewhere. I consider
myself in a position to make this appeal, since I am not the vanquished, begging
favors, but the victor speaking in the name of reason. I can see no reason why this
war must go on. I am grieved to think of the sacrifices it will claim.
Possibly Mr. Churchill again will brush aside this statement of mine by saying that
it is merely born of fear and of doubt in our final victory. In that case I shall have
relieved my conscience in regard to the things to come.”
The British respond to Hitler’s sincere plea with mockery, threats, and more bombs.

SEPTEMBER, 1940

‘AXIS’ NATIONS OF GERMANY, ITALY, & JAPAN SIGN ‘TRI-PARTITE PACT / HOPE TO KEEP THE U.S. OUT OF THE WAR

Germany and Japan are suspicious of FDR’s true intentions. To discourage American
military involvement in either Germany’s war with Britain, or Japan’s unrelated war
with China, the two nations and Italy sign the “Tripartite Pact”.

Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to assist one another with all political, economic and
military means if one of the contracting nations is attacked by a nation at present not
involved in the European War or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict. The hope is that
this pact will keep America out of the war. Ironically, the defense pact will end up
actually facilitating FDR’s scheme to draw America in.

SEPTEMBER, 1940

‘AXIS’ NATIONS OF GERMANY, ITALY, & JAPAN SIGN ‘TRI-PARTITE PACT / HOPE TO KEEP THE U.S. OUT OF THE WAR

Germany and Japan are suspicious of FDR’s true intentions. To discourage American
military involvement in either Germany’s war with Britain, or Japan’s unrelated war
with China, the two nations and Italy sign the “Tripartite Pact”.

Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to assist one another with all political, economic and
military means if one of the contracting nations is attacked by a nation at present not
involved in the European War or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict. The hope is that
this pact will keep America out of the war. Ironically, the defense pact will end up
actually facilitating FDR’s scheme to draw America in.

OCTOBER, 1940

UK PROMISES ‘NEW WORLD ORDER’ TO JEWS AFTER WAR
Germany is in total control of the European war situation. As they had during their
losing days of World War I, British politicians reach out to international Jewry for
help. During World War I, Britain’s ‘Balfour Declaration’ promised Palestine to the
Jews in exchange for bringing about U.S. entry. Now, Lord Arthur Greenwood’s
Declaration’ offers them a “New World Order”. Greenwood makes an amazingly
prophetic statement, ‘When we have achieved victory, and we assuredly shall…”
But there is no chance of British victory unless the U.S. can be dragged into the
conflict. Therefore, Greenwood must already suspect that the U.S. will enter the war
(which it does 14 months later). The promise of a ‘New World Order’ is clearly
intended to further encourage American Jewish support for entering the war.
Greenwood promises: “In the rebuilding of civilized society after the war, there
should and will be a real opportunity for Jews everywhere to make a distinctive and
constructive contribution.”
In other words, Lord Greenwood is saying: “Get America in and we’ll give you a say
in Europe’s affairs after the war!” Greenwood’s imperialist ‘dance with the Devil’
will prove fatal. After the war, Britain ends up broke and loses her Empire.

“….Arthur Greenwood member without portfolio in the British War Cabinet
assured the Jews of the United States that when victory was achieved an effort would be made to found a New World Order”

OCTOBER 28, 1940
ITALY INVADES GREECE

Italy had occupied tiny Albania in the spring of 1939. Mussolini now turns his
ambitions towards Greece. Greece has good relations with Germany, but Mussolini
wants to claim the Ionian Islands. Italy’s invasion of Greece is completely unrelated
to Germany’s war and creates unexpected problems for Hitler.
The Greeks repel the invasion. The British then offer to send troops to assist Greece.
Churchill now has an opening on the European mainland from which he can
move north towards Germany and eastward towards Romania and the crucial
oil fields which supply Germany.

NOVEMBER, 1940

AFTER LYING ABOUT HIS INTENTIONS, FDR WINS RE-ELECTION OVER GLOBALIST STRAW-MAN WENDELL WILKIE

Throughout the Election year of 1940, nationalist Republicans warn that FDR is
plotting to bring the US into war. Because the public is strongly opposed to entry in
another war, FDR reassures voters that the “isolationists” are misrepresenting his
intentions. During the campaign, FDR gives his famous “Again and again” speech:
“I say to you mothers and fathers and I shall say it again and again and again.
Your boys will not be sent into any foreign wars.”

The Globalist wing of the GOP (Republican Party) hijacks the nominating process
and puts up an unknown patsy, an “ex-Democrat” named Wendell Willkie to run
against FDR. Many Republicans are shocked when the GOP (supported by the
media’s hype of Willkie) anoints a New York lawyer who has never held any office.
Willkie runs a half-baked campaign and loses badly. FDR is elected to an
unprecedented 3rd (and later a 4th) term. Afterwards, FDR gives Willkie a job as an
Ambassador. In 1943, Willkie publishes a book entitled: One World.

NOVEMBER, 1940

THE VATICAN PRESENTS HITLER’S PEACE PROPOSALS TO BRITISH OFFICIALS

As far back May of 1939, as revealed by the front page of the New York Times, the
Vatican had been trying to mediate between Britain and Germany. Hitler was ready
and willing to talk peace at all times. It was the British who said “no”.
The peace-seeking Vatican and peace-seeking Germany remained in contact as the
war raged. The following excerpt from Martin Allen’s ‘Himmler’s Secret War’
describes a meeting held in Spain between the Papal Nuncio and British officials
Hoare and Hilgarth; and the latest peace offer from Hitler:
“The nature of the concessions that the German Fuhrer was prepared to make in
order to obtain peace with Britain must have astounded the men at the head of SO1.

This was not even a deal worked out through a process of hard negotiation. It was
Hitler’s opening gambit….an offer so generous and pragmatic that it would be very
tempting to anyone who genuinely wanted peace.
His (Hitler’s) offer of such remarkable concessions was an extremely threatening
development. Should the terms become public, it had the potential to render British
resolve to stand firm against German aggression to a shuttering halt.”

FEBRUARY, 1941

GERMANS ARRIVE IN AFRICA TO BAIL OUT THE ITALIANS
The first units of the German ‘AfrikaKorps’ arrive to rescue the collapsing Italian
war effort in February of 1941. General Erwin Rommel, known as the Desert Fox,
commands the German force in North Africa. Rommel will eventually establish the
upper hand in Africa, but this diversion of manpower and resources to Africa proves
to be a costly hindrance for Germany.

MARCH, 1941

U.S. ZIONIST THEODORE KAUFMAN PUBLISHES ‘GERMANY MUST PERISH!’ / CALLS FOR EXTINCTION OF GERMAN RACE!

‘’Germany Must Perish!’ is a 104 page booklet published by an American Zionist
businessman named Theodore Kaufman. Kaufman calls for the complete
extermination of the German people through forced sterilization and total

dismemberment and reapportionment of German territory. The murderous hate-
fest starts out in the very opening lines of Germany Must Perish as follows:

“This dynamic volume outlines a comprehensive plan for the extinction of the
German nation and the total eradication from the earth, of all her people. Also
contained herein is a map illustrating the possible territorial dissection of Germany
and the apportionment of her lands.”
Incredibly, at a time when America is supposedly “neutral”, the hateful book is
actually reviewed by The New York Times, Time Magazine and the Washington Post.
Though not widely distributed in America, Germany Must Perish is read throughout
Germany. Propaganda Minister Dr. Josef Goebbels states: “Thanks to the Jew
Kaufmann, we Germans know only too well what to expect in case of defeat.”
‘Germany Must Perish!’ will inspire the frightened German people to fight harder.
Kaufman’s work, along with the deadly Jewish Partisan guerilla warfare against
German troops, will contribute to Hitler’s decision to intern the Jews of occupied
Europe into wartime work camps later in 1941.

1941

FDR SIGNS ‘LEND – LEASE’ INTO LAW / UK TO BE SUPPLIED WITH U.S. MANUFACTURED ARMS

Britain is running short of arms and supplies as Germany continues to offer peace on
terms favorable to Britain. Churchill will not listen to reason because, behind the
scenes, FDR is reassuring him that the U.S. will support the UK at all costs. With
his successful re-election campaign of 1940 out of the way, FDR now becomes even
bolder in confronting the anti-war “isolationists”.
The Lend-Lease program places the awesome industrial might of the US at the
disposal of the UK, China, and later on, the USSR. America is to be “the Arsenal of
Democracy” says FDR. Britain will eventually receive $31 Billion worth of war
supplies (about $500 Billion at 2012 prices!)

APRIL 6, 1941

GERMANY BLOCKS BRITISH & SOVIET SCHEMES IN SOUTHERN EUROPE BY INVADING GREECE & YUGOSLAVIA
Though unrelated to Germany’s war, Mussolini’s foolish adventure in Greece has
already created a big problem for Hitler. As Italian forces meet stiff Greek resistance,
Churchill uses the conflict as an opportunity to again establish armies on Europe’s
mainland, in Europe’s “soft underbelly”. British troops begin arriving in Greece to help the Greeks in their fight against the Italians. Hitler offers to mediate peace between Italy and Greece, but the Greeks (egged on by the British) won’t come to the table as more British troops keep arriving.
In March, 1941, Yugoslavia joins Hitler’s defensive Tripartite Pact. In response,
British intelligence immediately triggers an orchestrated coup. The new
Yugoslavian regime is now a British puppet state, which immediately signs a “Treaty
of Friendship” with the USSR. Stalin’s Yugoslavian Communists take to the streets in
support of the new government.
Again, Hitler’s hand is forced. If he does not act now, the “soft underbelly” of Europe
will be flooded with British troops destined for southern Germany, as well as the
Romanian oil fields upon which Germany depends. On April 6, ’41, the Germans
invade both Greece and Yugoslavia. The still small numbers of British troops are
forced to evacuate, spoiling Churchill’s scheme to inflame southern Europe and invite
the Soviets in to help. Naturally, the Globalist media simplistically portrays these
events as: “Germans Invade Yugoslavia & Greece”.

MAY 10, 1941

RUDOLF HESS PARACHUTES INTO SCOTLAND WITH YET ANOTHER OFFER OF PEACE!

Rudolf Hess is Germany’s Number 2 in command and a close friend of Hitler. Recall
that it was Hess who typed out the dictation for Hitler’s Mein Kampf. In May of 1941,
Hess (who is fluent in English) flies a solo mission over Scotland and parachutes in,
carrying an offer of peace. He is hoping to link up with the Duke of Hamilton, who he had befriended at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, and convince his British acquaintance
of Germany’s sincere desire for peace. But he is arrested instead.
On Churchill’s orders, Hess is held in solitary confinement for the duration of
the war. After the war, Hess is “tried” at Nuremberg and then sentenced to life in
East Berlin’s Spandau prison. With the liberalization of the USSR in the 1980’s, there
is talk of finally releasing him. But he is said to have committed suicide in his cell in 1987.

His family believes that the 93-year-old Hess was murdered so that the details
of his peace mission would remain buried forever.

MAY – JULY, 1941

FDR ESCALATES HIS PROVOKATION OF GERMANY & JAPAN
Long before the German-Polish conflict, FDR had waged a silent war against
Germany. With Germany now in control of the European situation, FDR is even more
desperate to drag America into Britain’s war. He relentlessly baits Hitler.
To that end, the U.S. impounds German ships, sinks German subs, freezes German,
Italian, and Japanese financial assets, assists the British Navy in spotting and sinking
The Bismarck (killing 2200 German sailors), and ships large amounts of arms to
Britain. Hitler bears the humiliating provocations quietly; knowing that US entry
into the war would be disastrous for Germany.
Realizing that Hitler will not take his bait, FDR further instigates the Japanese. Recall
that the Axis Powers, (Germany, Japan, and Italy) are parties to a mutual defense
pact (Tripartite Pact). An attack on one means war with all. FDR will turn the
Tripartite Pact to his advantage.

JUNE 22, 1941

‘OPERATION BARBAROSSA’ / HITLER THWARTS STALIN’S PLAN TO CONQUER ALL OF EUROPE

As Germany and Britain exhaust each other in the air, at sea, and now North Africa,
Stalin quietly gathers his massive Red Army along Germany’s eastern frontier, near
the Romanian oil fields that supply Germany. Hitler knows that Stalin cannot be
trusted. He recalls how Stalin broke a non-aggression pact and pounced on Poland
while the Poles were pre-occupied with Germany. Another non-aggression pact was
broken when Stalin attacked Finland. Soviet invasions of the Baltic States and eastern
Romania, along with a recent Communist-backed coup in Yugoslavia all combine to
offer still more proof that Stalin is up to something.
Now, with Germany and Britain distracted, Stalin threatens all of Europe. Hitler had
hoped to remove the Soviet threat in April, but invasion plans were delayed by
Mussolini’s misadventures in Africa and Greece. When “Operation Barbarossa” is
launched, the Red Army is caught flat-footed and bunched up in offensive positions.
Millions of Soviet troops are taken prisoner, and the devastating loss of weaponry and
equipment leaves the Red Army neutralized.
Up to 65% of all Soviet tanks, field guns, .machine guns, and anti-tank guns are
either destroyed or captured. The Germans rout the Reds all the way back to the gates
of Moscow, liberating many cheering Ukrainian, Baltic, and even Russian people
along the way. It is only the onset of the brutal Russian winter that forces the
Germans to pause their stunning offensive. The 2 month delay due to Mussolini’s
folly in Greece may have saved Stalin’s regime from a total collapse in 1941.

“Already in 1940 it became increasingly clear from month to month that the plans of the men in the Kremlin were aimed at the domination, and thus the destruction, of all of Europe. I have
already told the nation of the build-up of Soviet military power in the East during a period when Germany had only a few divisions in the provinces bordering Soviet Russia. Only a blind person
could fail to see that a military build-up of world-historical dimensions was being carried out. And this was not in order to protect something that was being threatened, but rather to attack that which seemed incapable of defense….. I may say this today: .If the wave of more than 20,000 tanks, hundreds of divisions, tens of thousands of artillery pieces, along with more than
10,000 airplanes, had not been kept from being set into motion against the Reich, all of Europe would have been lost.”

– Adolf Hitler, 12-11-1941

JUNE, 1941

FDR RESCUES STALIN / EXTENDS MASSIVE MILITARY AID
With Stalin’s Evil Empire facing extinction at the hands of German forces, FDR
moves quickly to rescue the murderous regime. He unfreezes Soviet assets that had
been frozen after Stalin’s attack on Finland in 1939, enabling the Soviets to
immediately purchase 59 Fighter aircraft. The “Arsenal of Democracy” is now, “The
Arsenal of Communism.”
By 1945, the staggering amount of Lend-Lease deliveries to Stalin include 11,000
aircraft, 4,000 bombers, 400,000 trucks, 12,000 tanks and combat vehicles, 32,000
motorcycles, 13,000 locomotives and railway cars, 8,000 anti-aircraft cannons,
135.000 sub-machine guns, 300,000 tons of explosives, 40,000 field radios, 400 radar
systems, 400,000 metal cutting machine tools, several million tons of food, steel,
other metals, oil and gasoline, chemicals etc. Without this ENORMOUS
INFUSION of American aid, the Germans would probably have finished off
Stalin after the spring thaw of 1942.

JUNE 29, 1941

STALIN ORDERS ‘PARTISAN’ GUERRILLA WAR UPON GERMAN WEHRMARCHT (ARMY) / JEWISH PARTISANS ALSO FORM

Stalin calls upon Party, Soviet, & Trade Union organizations to form “partisan
divisions and diversion groups to pursue and destroy the invaders in a merciless struggle”.

In violation of commonly accepted rules of warfare, many Partisans neither wear uniforms, nor recognize international law. To grow the ranks of the Red Partisans, and prevent the Germans from winning over the civilian population, Soviet commandoes dress up in German uniforms and carry out “false-flag” atrocities against their own people, inciting hatred against the Germans.
Communist and Jewish Partisans, aided by the OSS (forerunner to CIA), also form in other nations, using the same false-flag tactics, and menacing the safety of German
troops unable to tell enemy from civilian.
Massive Jewish support for and participation in non- uniformed Partisan
groups, including women & children, is the main reason for Hitler’s decision to
intern Europe’s Jews in work camps as a wartime security precaution.

THE SAD FATE OF THE VOLGA GERMANS

The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living along the River Volga in
southeastern Russia. Recruited as immigrants to Russia in the 18th century, they had
always been allowed to maintain their German culture, language, and traditions.

After the German invasion in 1941, the Soviets consider the Volga Germans as
potential collaborators. On August 28, 1941, Stalin dissolves the Volga-German
Republic and orders the immediate relocation of ethnic Germans. About 400,000
Volga Germans are stripped of their land and houses; and transported eastward to
Soviet Central Asia, and Siberia. By 1942, nearly all the able-bodied German
population will have been conscripted to the NKVD slave-labor columns. At least
one-third will not survive the camps.

THE GERMAN SOLDIER’s 10 COMMANDMENTS

The German soldier is the best behaved and honorable soldier of Europe. Every
soldier receives a copy of ‘The German Soldier’s 10 Commandments and is expected
to follow them to the letter or face serious punishment.

  1. While fighting for victory the German soldier will observe the rules of
    chivalrous warfare. Cruelties and senseless destruction are below his standard.
  2. Combatants will be in uniform or will wear specially introduced and clearly
    distinguishable badges. Fighting in plain clothes or without such badges is
    prohibited.
  3. No enemy who has surrendered will be killed, including partisans and spies.
    They will be duly punished by courts.
  4. P.O.W. will not be ill-treated or insulted. While arms, maps, and records are to
    be taken away from them, their personal belongings will not be touched.
  5. Dum-Dum bullets are prohibited; also no other bullets may be transformed into
    Dum-Dum.
  6. Red Cross Institutions are sacrosanct. Injured enemies are to be treated in a
    humane way. Medical personnel and army chaplains may not be hindered in
    the execution of their medical or clerical activities.
  1. The civilian population is sacrosanct. Neither looting nor wanton destruction
    is permitted to the soldier. Landmarks of historical value or buildings serving
    religious purposes, art, science, or charity are to be especially respected.
  2. Neutral territory will never be entered nor passed over by planes, nor shot at; it
    will not be the object of warlike activities of any kind.
  3. If a German soldier is made a prisoner of war he will tell his name and rank if
    asked for it. Under no circumstances will he reveal to which unit he belongs,
    nor will he give any information about German military, political, and
    economic conditions.
  4. Offenses of duty will be punished. Enemy offenses against the principles
    under 1 to 8 are to be reported. Reprisals are only permissible on order of
    higher commands.
    The only exception to these rules of conduct was in dealing with the murderous

Communist Partisans who refuse to recognize rules of warfare. For this reason, non-
uniformed Partisan prisoners who refused to surrender were sometimes hanged or

shot as war criminals, not as legitimate POW’s.

LIFE IN THE GERMAN INTERNMENT CAMPS

Contrary to the popular belief that life in the SS-run internment camps was a brutal
existence of slave labor followed by extermination, the German went to great lengths
to keep the Jewish inmates well-fed, well-housed and even entertained. Officials from
the International Red Cross visited the camps regularly and right up until the end of
the war.

There were orchestras, soccer leagues and activities for children. There were
weddings, Bar Mitzvahs, and even maternity wards for pregnant women. The
Auschwitz camp even had a swimming pool and a general store!
It was only during the final year of the war that conditions began to deteriorate as
typhus epidemics spread and supplies diminished. Because of the contagious nature
of typhus, the corpses were cremated, not buried near groundwater. The destruction
of so much of Germany’s critical infrastructure contributed to the deaths.
Nonetheless, as the camps were liberated, many healthy and seemingly well-fed
‘Holocaust survivors”, as well as some not so healthy, were seen and photographed.

1941

THE WAFFEN SS: VOLUNTEERS FROM ACROSS EUROPE JOIN INTERNATIONAL FORCE UNDER GERMAN COMMAND
Brave men from every nation in Europe (and some from Asia) volunteer to fight the
Soviets. They are welcomed into Germany’s “Waffen SS” – an elite fighting force.
The anti-Communist Waffen SS are motivated by a vision of a greater European
family. For the European SS, the Europe of jealousies, border disputes, and economic
rivalries is petty. They fight for ‘Europa’ itself.
The Waffen SS is a true international army of the European peoples. One million men
fight in the SS, of which, 600,000 are non-German. Officers of the Waffen serve in
the front lines alongside their men. By war’s end, half of the SS commanders will
have been killed in action. During and after the brutal winter of 41-42, it is the
Waffen SS who will stand their ground and delay the massive Soviet counter offensive.

By the end of the war, 40% of the Waffen SS will have been killed or gone
missing. Were it not for the tenacity and sacrifice of the heroic Waffen
volunteers, all of Europe would have been lost to the Soviet hordes. It is not
surprising that to this day, the “SS” is still vilified in the Globalist press.

HITLER’S JEWISH SOLDIERS AND HIS FAVORITE JEWISH DOCTOR

Hitler was not fanatically anti-Jewish as much as he was anti-Marxist, although there
was large overlap between the two groups. As hard as it may be to believe, it is
absolutely true that about 60,000 half-Jewish, and 90,000 quarter-Jewish soldiers

fought for Hitler’s Germany.Among these were decorated soldiers, officers, and
even Generals and Admirals.
As Fuehrer, Hitler personally intervened to assist Dr. Eduard Bloch, the noble Jewish
doctor who had treated his cancer stricken mother. Hitler had never forgotten Dr.
Bloch’s kindness, and inquired about him when he returned to liberated Austria in 1938.

On Hitler’s orders, Bloch was given “special protection”. When interviewed by
the OSS (CIA) towards the end of the war, Bloch spoke very well of the young Hitler
that he had known.

AUGUST, 1941

JAPAN APPEALS TO U.S. FOR PEACE TALKS TO END THE WAR WITH CHINA

FDR could easily have mediated an end to the war in Asia; but chose to continue arming the
Chinese.

SEPTEMBER 11, 1941

CHARLES LINDBERGH JR. ACCUSES FDR AND JEWS OF PLOTTING TO DRAG THE U.S. INTO THE WAR

American patriots such as famed aviator Charles Lindbergh Jr. clearly see that FDR is
plotting to involve America in the war. Lindbergh is a leading figure in the “America
First” movement, or what Globalist propaganda cleverly refers to as “isolationism.”
Lindbergh’s speech in Iowa accurately describes what is happening behind the scenes.

He warns:
“The leaders of the British and the Jewish races, for reasons which are as
understandable from their viewpoint as they are inadvisable from ours, for reasons
which are not American, wish to involve us in this war.”
Joseph Kennedy, the US Ambassador to England and Patriarch of the Kennedy
Family Dynasty, also expressed this opinion, though not publicly.

OCTOBER – NOVEMBER, 1941

FDR REPEATEDLY AND DELIBERATELY BAITS JAPAN
In the closing months of 1941, FDR’s provocations of Japan escalate to the level of
“acts of war”. FDR imposes devastating oil and trade embargoes on Japan, denies her
ships access to the neutral Panama Canal, and orders U.S. battleships to undertake
“pop up” cruises through Japanese territorial waters.

Finally, on November 26th of ’41, FDR sends an impossible ultimatum to Japan,
implying a military threat, and demanding that Japan withdraw all of its troops from
China and Indochina as a pre-condition for lifting the oil embargo.
The day before the hostile letter was sent, Secretary of War Henry Stimson recorded,
in his personal diary, the topic of a meeting with FDR as follows: “The question was
how we should maneuver them (Japan) into the position of firing the first shot.”